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Genhua Niu, Pedro Osuna, Youping Sun, and Denise S. Rodriguez

chile peppers ( Capsicum annuum ) are popular bedding plants and containerized plants resulting from their compact growth habit and numerous fruits that spread over the top of the plant and attractive foliage ( Coon et al., 2008 ). The indeterminate

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María José Arismendi, Patricio Hinrichsen, Ruben Almada, Paula Pimentel, Manuel Pinto, and Boris Sagredo

Fruit production is one of the most dynamic and growing areas of Chilean agriculture. This country is one of the world’s main fresh fruit producers and exporters and is first hemisphere-wide ( Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

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Soumaila Sanogo, Osama I. El-Sebai, and Robert Sanderson

Chile pepper ( Capsicum annuum L.) is a vegetable crop of great economic importance in the southwestern United States. Major states producing chile pepper (nonbell type) are New Mexico, California, Texas, and Arizona. In 2006, chile pepper

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Vedat Bedirhanoğlu, Hui Yang, and Manoj K. Shukla

in onion ( Allium cepa ), but it delayed the flowering of tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ) ( Shannon and Grieve, 1998 ). Chile pepper ( Capsicum annuum ) is an important commercial crop having a large planting area of about 3500 ha in Southwestern

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Jorge O'Ryan and Monica Ozores-Hampton

The Chilean organic wine industry has comparative advantages with Europe and the United States because of its ideal environmental conditions, resulting in low presence of pests and diseases and lower production cost. Additionally, the wine production process is one of the strictest in the world, so the transformation from conventional to organic wine production can be achieved economically. A survey was conducted of 32 Chilean organic vineyards during 2004. The survey included 18 questions about total surface area, certification, varieties, final market, etc. The survey covered 95% of the land under organic wine production, with a total of 1892 ha, of which 1088 ha have organic certification and 804 ha are in transition to organic production. The major vineyards and valleys with organic wine production are Maipo (33.7%), Colchagua (17.2%), El Maule (14.0%), Curicó (9.9%), and Cachapoal (8.8%). The most important organic red varieties currently under production are `Cabernet Sauvignon' (40.9%), `Merlot' (15.1%), `Syrah' (9.1%), `Carmenere' (7.3%), `Malbec' (3.3%), and `Pinot Noir' (2.5%). The white varieties are `Sauvignon Blanc' (6.4%), `Chardonnay' (5.1%), and `Semillón' (1.0%). The potential for the organic wine industry in Chile is tremendous since organic vineyards represent only 2% of the total vineyard industry.

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Ehtisham S. Khokhar, Dennis N. Lozada, Amol N. Nankar, Samuel Hernandez, Danise Coon, Navdeep Kaur, and Seyed Shahabeddin Nourbakhsh

Mexico or North Central America. Previous analyses dated wild Capsicum harvesting to ∼8000 years ago, followed by the cultivation and domestication of the C. annuum ∼6000 years ago ( Byers, 1967 ; Perry et al., 2007 ). The shape of the wild chile

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Rachel E. Rudolph, Carl Sams, Robert Steiner, Stephen H. Thomas, Stephanie Walker, and Mark E. Uchanski

, reduce soil erosion, increase water infiltration, decrease nutrient loss by leaching, attract beneficial insects, suppress weeds, and/or suppress soilborne pathogens ( Magdoff and Van Es, 2009 ). In New Mexico, where chile pepper ( Capsicum annuum L

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Paul W. Bosland and Danise Coon

of heirloom cultivars. Origin Dr. Roy Harper released the New Mexican-type chile pepper cultivar, Sandia A, in 1956 ( Coon et al., 2008 ). In 1967 the New Mexico Crop Improvement Association met and decided to change the name to ‘Sandia’ ( Harper and

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Derek W. Barchenger, Sopana Yule, Nakarin Jeeatid, Shih-wen Lin, Yen-wei Wang, Tsung-han Lin, Yuan-li Chan, and Lawrence Kenyon

Chile pepper ( Capsicum annuum L.) is widely used as a vegetable and spice and a source of colorants and pharmaceuticals ( Wall and Bosland, 1998 ). Consumer demand for chile pepper has substantially increased over the past 30 years, especially for

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Stephanie J. Walker

In New Mexico, paprika is the term describing New Mexico-type red chile cultivars that are high in extractable pigment (greater than 180) American Spice Trade Association (ASTA) units and low in heat (pungency) [less than 700 Scoville heat units