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Baniekal Hiremath Gangadhar, Raghvendra Kumar Mishra, Gobinath Pandian, and Se Won Park

10 min and the resulting supernatants were used for estimation of soluble protein contents. Protein contents were assayed by Lowry et al. (1951) method with bovine serum albumin as the standard. Estimation of chlorophyll and carotenoid content. The

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P. Perkins-Veazie, J.K. Collins, M. Siddiq, and K. Dolan

Most watermelon in the U.S. is consumed fresh. Development of value-added products from watermelon is desirable for new market niches, and provides alternative markets for fruit that are cosmetically undesirable for the fresh market. The objective of this experiment was to determine if different processing techniques changed the lycopene and quality aspects of juices and concentrates. Watermelon flesh was macerated, followed by holding at room temperature (no heat) or heating to 50 °C. Macerate was then placed in a hydraulic press to obtain juice. Adding heat to macerate increased juice yield by 1% to 2% and increased lycopene content by 1 to 2 mg·kg–1. The residual pomace (waste from juicing) also contained lycopene, about 110% of that found in the juice, or 10% from the original macerate. In a second experiment, juice was subjected to pasteurization, which caused a slight loss of lycopene and beta-carotene compared to the unpasteurized juice. In a third study, juice was concentrated to 42 °Brix using either 40 or 50 °C heat treatments, followed by pasteurization. Heating juice to 50 °C concentrated the lycopene by 17% compared to heating to 40 °C. Pasteurization increased the lycopene content of the 40 °C concentrate by 10% but not of the 50 °C concentrate. In summary, the addition of heat at various steps during processing and pastuerization of watermelon concentrated but did not degrade lycopene. Additionally, the residual pomace created from juice manufacturing is a concentrated source of carotenoids and may have potential use as a value added nutraceutical product.

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Marcia Vizzotto, Luis Cisneros-Zevallos, David H. Byrne, David W. Ramming, and W.R. Okie

human health. The phytochemicals reported in Prunus L. include carotenoids, anthocyanins, and other phenolics ( Cevallos-Casals et al., 2005 ; Gao and Mazza, 1995 ; Gil et al., 2002 ; Radi et al., 1997 ; Senter and Callahan, 1991 ; Tourjee et al

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Martina Göttingerová, Michal Kumšta, and Tomáš Nečas

contents of nonnutritive, nutritive, and bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, phenolics, and anthocyanins, as well as nutritive compounds such as sugars, essential oils, carotenoids, vitamins, and minerals, which are used by humans ( Güney et al., 2019

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C.R. Brown, C.G. Edwards, C.-P. Yang, and B.B. Dean

Potatoes with orange flesh were found in cultivated diploid (2n = 24) potato populations derived from Solanum stenotomum Juz. et Buk. and S.phureja Juz. et Buk. The orange flesh trait was found to be controlled by an allele at the Y- locus designated Or. Or is dominant over Y and y, which control yellow and white flesh, respectively. In a comparison of white and orange flesh segregants from crosses, the orange was associated with large amounts of zeaxanthin, a xanthophyll previously not reported as a constituent of potato flesh carotenoids. The combined total of lutein and zeaxanthin was four times higher than the highest carotenoid composition previously reported for potato, this is about one-sixth the total carotenoid content of carrot with standard carotenoid levels, although lutein and zeaxanthin do not possess provitamin A activity.

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Michael P. Dzakovich, Celina Gómez, Mario G. Ferruzzi, and Cary A. Mitchell

related to changes in ascorbic acid, carotenoids, and polyphenolic compounds. Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is a cofactor for many metabolic processes, serves as an antioxidant, and is an essential nutrient for humans ( Laing et al., 2007 ). Ascorbic acid

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Penelope Perkins-Veazie*, J.K. Collins, and Warren Roberts

Watermelons contain the carotenoids b-carotene, phytofluene, lycopene, and lutein. These carotenoids play an important role in plant oxidative protection and may serve to protect humans against oxidative assaults. Of the carotenoids, lycopene is the predominant pigment in red-fleshed melons (30-130 μg·g-1), b-carotene is present in small amounts (1-14 μg·g-1), and other carotenoids are present in minute amounts (1-3 μg·g-1). Seventy varieties were screened for lycopene content using scanning colorimetry, spectrophotometry, and HPLC techniques, and grouped as low, medium, high, or very high in lycopene. Pink-fleshed heirloom varieties such as Sweet Princess and Black Diamond contained low amounts of lycopene (<40 μg·g-1). A number of seeded and seedless varieties had medium amounts of lycopene (40-60 μg·g-1). Varieties in the high category (60-80 μg·g-1) were primarily seedless types, although `Dixie Lee', an open-pollinated, seeded variety had 69 μg·g-1, indicating that high lycopene content is not restricted to hybrid or seedless melon germplasm. Six selections were found to be very high in lycopene (>80 μg·g-1), including the minimelon Hazera 6008 (Extazy). Total carotenoids and carotenoid profiles were determined by HPLC for 23 varieties in 2003. Both seeded and seedless type melons had varieties high in bcarotene, lycopene, and total carotenoids. These results indicate that commercial watermelon varieties have a wide range in lycopene and b-carotene content, and that most commercially important varieties are high in lycopene and total carotenoids, providing important sources of phytonutrients to the human diet.

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Christine M. Bradish, Gad G. Yousef, Guoying Ma, Penelope Perkins-Veazie, and Gina E. Fernandez

locations in central and western North Carolina were evaluated to determine the effects of a warm production climate and high tunnel cultivation on anthocyanin, carotenoid, tocopherol, and ellagitannin content, among a number of other fruit quality factors

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Sergey Nesterenko and Kenneth C. Sink

Lutein and zeaxanthin are becoming established as carotenoids beneficial for protection against common age-associated eye diseases. Thus, 15 potato (Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum L.) breeding lines, cultivars Atlantic, Spunta, and Yukon Gold; and orange flesh OR-4 were surveyed for carotenoid profiles. Seven carotenoids, including violaxanthin, neoaxanthin, antheraxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoaxanthin, and β-carotene, were identified in the 19 genotypes. Violaxanthin and lutein were the prominent carotenoids detected in all genotypes studied. Neoaxanthin and antheraxanthin were found in 26% and 63% of the genotypes, respectively. β-Cryptoaxanthin, zeaxanthin, and β-carotene were found in only 5%, 10%, and 16% of the genotypes, respectively. Lutein varied from 19.8 to 119.0 μg·100 g-1 fresh weight across the 15 white- or yellow-flesh breeding lines. In contrast, zeaxanthin was detected at a low level in only one breeding line and at high level in OR-4. The three cultivars had profiles typical of yellow-flesh potatoes `Spunta' and `Yukon Gold'; while `Atlantic' had a typical white-flesh profile and a trace of zeaxanthin. The carotenoid baseline data established in this study provide information for activities to enhance potato for lutein and zeaxanthin.

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Robert L. Jarret, Gloria E. Barboza, Fabiane Rabelo da Costa Batista, Terry Berke, Yu-Yu Chou, Amanda Hulse-Kemp, Neftali Ochoa-Alejo, Pasquale Tripodi, Aniko Veres, Carolina Carrizo Garcia, Gabor Csillery, Yung-Kuang Huang, Erzsebet Kiss, Zsofia Kovacs, Mihaly Kondrak, Magda Lisette Arce-Rodriguez, Marisel A. Scaldaferro, and Antal Szoke

( Gurung et al., 2012 ). Table 6. Environmental factors effecting capsaicinoid biosynthesis/accumulation in Capsicum fruit. Carotenoids and Fruit Color Fruit color is an extremely important characteristic in Capsicum ( Lang et al., 2004 ; Paran and