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Ross E. Byers

AVG applied 2 to 6 weeks before the optimum harvest date for several cultivars dramatically reduced pre-harvest fruit drop. The loss of fruit firmness and starch loss after the optimum harvest date was reduced by AVG sprays. The development of watercore in `Starkrimson Delicious' and `York' and maturity cracking in `Rome' and `Golden Delicious' were delayed and/or prevented by AVG. Color development was slightly delayed for most red cultivars and `Golden Delicious'. Soluble solids concentration was generally unchanged. Airblast applications of 123 g·ha–1 AVG was no more effective than a standard rate of NAA (28 to 56 g·ha–1), but rates of 248 g·ha–1 AVG and above were more effective than NAA for most cultivars. When fruit were left on the tree for periods of 3 to 5 weeks after the optimum harvest date, NAA hastened the loss of fruit firmness and starch and NAA increased watercore of `Delicious' and maturity cracking of `Golden Delicious' and `Law Rome'. Soluble solids and red color were generally unaffected by NAA. Ethephon sprays hastened the rate of fruit drop. When NAA was tank mixed with ethephon, NAA delayed fruit drop caused by ethephon, but AVG did not. The use of superior oil or Regulaid surfactant did not affect NAA or AVG responses; however, the silicone surfactant Silwet L-77, in one experiment, promoted the effectiveness of AVG. Tank mixing NAA or AVG with pesticides (Guthion + Lannate + Captan) did not affect the responses of AVG or NAA on fruit drop.

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Jocelyn A. Ozga and F.G. Dennis Jr.

Exposure of stratified apple (Malus domestics Borkh. cv. Golden Delicious) seeds to 30C induces secondary dormancy. To determine if an increase in abscisic acid (ABA) content was associated with the loss in germination capacity, stratified seeds (3,- 6, or 9 weeks at 5C) were held at 30C for 0, 3, or 6 days. Stratification at 5C either had no effect or increased ABA content in embryonic axes, cotyledons, and seed coats. Exposure to 30C after stratification either did not affect or decreased ABA content of embryonic axes and seed coats; in contrast, cotyledonary ABA was increased. Seed coats, cotyledons, and embryonic axes stratified for 3, 6, or 9 weeks at 20C contained the same or higher levels of ABA in comparison with nonstratified seeds or seeds stratified at SC. Changes in ABA levels were not consistently correlated with changes in germination capacity during stratification or after exposure to 30C. These data suggest that changes in ABA are not related to changes in dormancy. Chemical names used: abscisic acid (ABA); butylated hydroxy-toluene (BHT); n-(trichloromethyl) thio-4-cyclohexene-1,2-dicarboximide(Captan).

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Zhiguo Ju, Yousheng Duan, and Zhiqiang Ju

In China, one of the most serious problems to fruit growers is too much vegetative growth and too many pests and diseases during the growing season. Therefore, a large number of growth regulators, pesticides, and fungicides are used each year, which increases production costs and causes environmental pollution. To reduce the usage of agrochemicals, a device was invented to confine the treated area. Instead of applying chemicals directly to leaves, which may have reduced the efficiency by washing or UV degradation, the chemicals were injected directly to the truck of trees and transported through the xylem to the target organ, the leaf. Results showed that, to reach the same level of control, using plant regulators such as paclobutrazol, gibberellins, and ascorbic acid, the amount used could be reduced by 50% to 80%. The use of fungicides such as captan and diazinon could be reduced by 35% to 60%, and the use of pesticides such as vendex could be reduced by as much as 50%. Compared with the conventional method, the injection method showed three advantages: 1) It is economical in that production costs were reduced by about 40%, 2) It is efficient in that the same level of control was achieved using less chemicals (Due to the small acreage cultivated by family growers in China, the device could be installed within days and chemicals could be applied within hours.), 3) It is environmentally friendly because chemicals were not released throughout the orchard.

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K.C. Taylor

The absence of red color in a streaked “Bleaching” pattern is periodically noted on late-season peaches in middle Georgia. The streaked pattern led to a hypothesis that accumulation of pesticides in the stem end of the fruit prevented anthocyanin formation. However, analysis of pesticide residues on affected and unaffected peel suggested this was unlikely. We observed that trees affected by fungal gummosis (caused by Botrysphearia dithodia) were most often affected by the “bleaching” phenomenon and that `Summer Gold', the most fungal gummosis–susceptible variety, had the greatest incidence of the disorder. In a preliminary trial, we tested the hypothesis that fungal gummosis mediates “bleaching” by interfering with anthocyanin color formation in the peel of developing fruit. Tree gum/resin and pesticides were tested for their effect on peel color development. The gum/chemical preparations were dripped onto fruit prior to anthocyanin or red pigment formation in peach peel. After the anthocyanescent period, fruit were observed for bleaching. The gum mediated a negative effect by sulfur, captan, and carbaryl in peel color formation in peach. Fenbuconizole and phosmet had a less negative effect on color formation, although the effect was noticeable. The gum alone, propiconizole, and chlorothalonil did little to effect on peel color formation.

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Graham Sanders, Elsa Sanchez, and Kathleen Demchak

The increased demand for organic and sustainably grown produce has resulted in a demand for information on organic and biorational fungicides. The efficacy of these fungicides is often not established, yet they are aggressively advertised. In 2005 the efficacy of six organic and biorational fungicides and two controls were evaluated on field-grown red raspberries (Rubus idaeus `Prelude' and `Nova') for gray mold (Botrytis cinerea) management. Phytotoxicity of the fungicide treatments was evaluated on a weekly basis following each fungicide application. Fruit was harvested by hand, sorted into marketable and unmarketable categories and weighed. Subsamples of fruit were evaluated for postharvest disease development. Data analysis showed `Nova' was more susceptible to phytotoxicity than `Prelude'. The application of Phostrol resulted in the highest phytotoxicity rating when compared to all other fungicide treatments. The water spray control, standard fungicide (Captan/Elevate rotation) control, Endorse, and Lime Sulfur treatments resulted in negligible phytotoxity ratings. Applying Milstop, Milstop + Oxidate, and Oxidate + Vigor Cal Phos resulted in similar intermediate phytotoxicity ratings. Differences in marketable yield were nonexistent for the two cultivars and eight fungicide treatments. The predominant diseases observed in the postharvest evaluations were gray mold, blue mold (Penicillium sp.), and rhizopus soft rot (Rhizopus sp.) and/or mucor mold (Mucor sp.). This evaluation will be repeated in 2006.

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Jason C. Fausey

The liverwort, marchantia (Marchantia polymorpha), and silver thread moss (Bryum argenteum) are two highly invasive and difficult to control pests in containerized ornamentals. Container trials were conducted evaluating marchantia and silve r thread moss control with preemergence and postemergence applications of chlorothalonil, captan, ammonium chlorides, hydrogen dioxide, flumioxazin, oxyfluorfen, pelargonic acid, acetic acid (vinegar), copper sulfate, cinnamaldehyde, prodiamine, and oxadiazon. Flumioxazin, oxyfluorfen, pelargonic acid, acetic acid, and oxadiazon provided acceptable preemergence and/or postemergence marchantia and silver thread moss control; however, no product provided acceptable control of these weeds at all evaluations. Under controlled environmental conditions marchantia and silver thread moss were controlled with flumioxazin, oxyfluorfen, pelargonic acid, acetic acid, and oxadiazon. In addition to providing postemergence control of these weeds, flumioxazin, oxyfluorfen, and oxidiazon also had residual activity when applied to potting media. However, the length and effectiveness of the preemergence control with flumioxazin, oxyfluorfen, and oxadiazon was dependant upon formulation. In a separate study comparing granular and sprayable formulations of flumioxazin, oxyfluorfen, and oxidiazon, results indicated control of established marchantia and silver thread moss was greater with sprayable formulations when compared with granular formulations. Similarly, sprayable formulations of these active ingredients enhanced residual marchantia and silver thread moss control. The granular and sprayable formulations of flumioxazin provided greater preemergence and postemergence control of marchantia and silver thread moss when compared with granular or sprayable formulations of oxyfluorfen and oxadiazon, and of the products evaluated, displayed the greatest level of activity against these weeds.

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Charles C. Reilly, Michael W. Hotchkiss, and Kathryn C. Taylor

Pesticide application in peach (Prunus persica) orchards with a commercial airblast sprayer was compared to that of an air assisted rotary atomizer (AARA), low-volume sprayer during the 2000 through 2003 seasons. The two technologies were employed during early season petal fall applications, shuck split applications and standard cover sprays using phosmet, sulfur, propiconazole, chlorothalonil, azoxystrobin and captan. Ripe fruit, picked 1 day prior to first harvest each season were rated for peach scab (Cladosporium carpophilum), brown rot (Monilinia fructicola), insect (Hemipteran) damage (cat facing), and blemishes. Differences in brown rot, insect damage, and blemish ratings were not detected between the treatments for each of the four seasons. Differences were detected during the 2000 and 2001 seasons for peach scab, with the AARA sprayer plots having a higher incidence. Spray coverage was quantitatively evaluated with Rhodamine B dye by leaf rinses that indicated there was equivalent coverage for each application method. Phosmet residue detection on trees of the treated rows was also equivalent from each method. Phosmet off-target spray movement (drift) was reduced 59% one row away from the treated row and 93% in the fifth row from the treated row by the AARA sprayer compared to airblast sprayer drift.

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Danny L. Barney

Seeds of V. membranaceum germinated in petri dishes fresh (undried), airdried for 7 days, or cold-stored for 1 or 6 years exhibited similar germination vs. time curves. Dry storage at 0–4°C for 1 or 6 years did not reduce the percentage of germination compared to fresh seeds. Cold stratification at 0–4°C slowed germination by extending the initial lag phase compared to unstratified seed. Stratification for 28 to 56 days delayed germination by ≈2 weeks. This pattern held true for fresh (undried) seed, seed air-dried for 7 days, and seed cold-stored for 6 years. Surface sterilization for 20 or 30 minutes with a 0.5% aqueous solution of sodium hypochlorite reduced fungal and bacterial contamination of germinating seeds without adversely impacting germination. Treatment of V. membranaceum seeds with captan or mancozeb fungicide inhibited germination by extending the lag phase and reducing the germination vs. time slope of the exponential phase. Mancozeb-treated seeds exhibited a lower percentage of germination than did controls, and often developed necrotic radical tips.

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Kyong Ho Lim, Wol Soo Kim, Hyung Kee Lim, and Byeong Sam Kim

This experiment was carried out to investigate the effective cutting methods and media for hardwood cuttings in `Sunaga Wase' peach (Prunus persica L.). Using 1-year-old peach stems out of winter pruning, the cutting stems were procurred through several steps on 16 Feb. 1995 and 1996. i) Cut 30 cm in length by pruning scissors and bundled to 10 stems; ii) 1-cm bottom part of cutting stem dipped into IBA (1000 ppm solution) for 5 s and then powdering with Captan WP; iii) upper part of cutting stem coated with Topsin paste; iv) standing the bundled cutting stems in the cutting bench filled with cutting media; v) the temperature maintained at 20 ± 1°C under the level of cutting media by bottom heating and at 5 to 10°C above the media level. Among the cutting media, vermiculite showed the highest rooting percentage, as much as 93.2%, followed by Jiffy pot and rockwool cube. High transplanting survival percentage under field conditions was obtained by the treatment of vermiculite of media + cutting duration for 35 days. Although the treatment of cutting duration for 55 days showed very high percentage of rooting, such as 96.4% in vermiculite, 78.3% in Jiffy pots, and 83.3% of rockwool cube, their percentage of nursery survival after transplanting were reduced remarkably less than 10% in nursery fields covered with black polyethylene film. The nursery trees obtained from each treatment were characteristically 136 to 146 cm in tree height and 22.9 to 26.8 cm in trunk diameter.

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Ross E. Byers and Alson H. Smith Jr.

An analysis of daytime high temperatures for the 10-year period from 1984 to 1993 indicated that, in the 21 days after full bloom (AFB) in 7 of 10 years, there were 3 days or more above 29.5C. In the 15- to 21-day period AFB, when fruit are considered at their optimum diameter (8 to 12 mm) for thinning, only 3 days above 29.5C were recorded. In the 15 to 21 days AFB, the high temperature was only 24C for 7 out of 10 years. Thus, growers would have to spray at temperatures 5.6C degrees lower if they were to choose to spray the warmest 3 days during the 15- to 21-day period when fruit are 8 to 12 mm in diameter. NAA caused thinning of `Golden Delicious' fruit at 8-mm fruit diameter. Tank mixing of one of several pesticides (regulaid or guthion, captan, carzol, imidan, polyram, lorsban, omite, or lannate) had no effect on NAA efficacy. Comparison of identical chemical thinning treatments (carbaryl + Accel + oil) applied to `York' and `Red Delicious' apple trees indicated that more thinning occurred with the PF treatments than at 8 mm. Average 2-day high temperatures at PF were 7.1C higher at PF for the `Red Delicious' experiment and 5.6C higher for the `York' experiment. The higher temperatures at PF could account for the differences in thinning response and not the spray timing. Pollination and fertilization inhibitors caused some fruit thinning at the highest rates and multiple applications. The MYX4801 caused more thinning and more injury to fruit than other materials. Endothall gave good thinning without fruit injury. Wilthin (GWN-6592) did cause some thinning, but fruit injury was a problem in one experiment.