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Fumiomi Takeda, Gerard Krewer, Changying Li, Daniel MacLean, and James W. Olmstead

storage. The key constraints to a wider use of machines to harvest SH blueberry for fresh market are as follows: Damage occurring during harvest, particularly bruising lowers overall quality by producing softer, leaky fruit that are at increased risk of

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Sokrith Sea, Cyril Rakovski, and Anuradha Prakash

d when subjected to a minimum dose of 0.4 kGy. Pears are susceptible to postharvest bruising and become more vulnerable after the mature-green stage when the fruit begin to soften during ripening ( Abolhassani et al., 2013 ; Mitcham et al., 1996

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Steven A. Sargent, Adrian D. Berry, Jeffrey G. Williamson, and James W. Olmstead

impacts occurred at two drop points—the drop to the catch plates (30%) and the drop into the harvest lug (20%)—and they suggested that manufacturers should focus on reducing/minimizing impacts at these locations to significantly reduce bruising. Although

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Luis Rallo

origin of the damage (e.g., mussel-scale, hail-damage, wrinkled olive). Fruit bruising and blistering are of special relevance. Bruises appear in the fruit as a result of physical impacts during harvesting and subsequent postharvest manipulation, whereas

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Brad Geary, Deron Beck, and Mike Thornton

Botrytis neck rot, caused by Botrytis allii, is a major storage problem in dry bulb onions. This disease has been responsible for losses exceeding 50%, resulting in financial devastation to growers. Botrytis infections likely occur around the last month onions are in the field prior to harvest and before moving into storage. Earlier studies indicated that the spread of this fungus did not occur in storage. More recent studies suggest that bulb-to-bulb transmission in storage is possible, especially when bulbs are handled roughly during harvest. `Vaquero' dry bulb onions were planted in 2003 and 2004, and in 2005 the cultivar Renegade was used. All bulbs were produced using standard commercial practices. Bulbs were hand-lifted at harvest to reduce the amount of mechanical injury, then cured for 2 weeks. To simulate impact bruising, a 1/4-lb weight was dropped through a 2-ft PVC pipe, striking a healthy bulb on the outer scale. Shatter bruising occurred by dropping healthy bulbs down a 7-ft column containing seven offset immobile metal bars. To evaluate the interaction of inoculum load with bruise injury on disease spread, healthy bulbs were surface inoculated with botrytis and incubated until visible sporulation. Twelve infected bulbs were added to onion samples immediately after bruising. The treatments were then stored under ambient conditions. In 2004 and 2005, shatter bruising caused significant increases in botrytis infections to the inside and outside of the bulb over impact bruising, and impact bruising caused significantly more infections than the nonbruised check treatments. Adding botrytis infected bulbs increased infections, but only when injury of either type was present. Shatter bruising had the most significant effect on total botrytis infection.

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Charles Mainland

Mechanized harvest for processing markets has become commercially accepted for blackberries (Rubus sp.), highbush (Vaccinium corymbosum), lowbush (V. angustifolium) and rabbiteye (V. ashei), blueberries, cranberries (V. macrocarpon), grapes (Vitus labruscana, V. vinifera, V. rotundifolia, V. sp.), raspberries (Rubus ideaus) and to a lesser extent for strawberries (Fragaria × ananassa). Fruit bruising during harvest and sorting often contributes to reduced “eye appeal” and keeping quality for fresh sales. Highbush and rabbiteye blueberries are successfully machine harvested for fresh markets, however, high temperature and rain will often make product quality unacceptable. Highbush blueberries grown in cool climates and rabbiteye blueberries with greater inherent resistance to bruising have most consistently given acceptable quality. Cultivar improvement and equipment that causes less bruising during harvest and sorting will be required for increased mechanization for fresh markets. Mechanical pruning of blackberries, blueberries, grapes and raspberries can reduce costs by up to 80%. The audience will be involved in discussion of advancements in mechanization techniques.

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Charles Mainland

Mechanized harvest for processing markets has become commercially accepted for blackberries (Rubus sp.), highbush (Vaccinium corymbosum), lowbush (V. angustifolium) and rabbiteye (V. ashei), blueberries, cranberries (V. macrocarpon), grapes (Vitus labruscana, V. vinifera, V. rotundifolia, V. sp.), raspberries (Rubus ideaus) and to a lesser extent for strawberries (Fragaria × ananassa). Fruit bruising during harvest and sorting often contributes to reduced “eye appeal” and keeping quality for fresh sales. Highbush and rabbiteye blueberries are successfully machine harvested for fresh markets, however, high temperature and rain will often make product quality unacceptable. Highbush blueberries grown in cool climates and rabbiteye blueberries with greater inherent resistance to bruising have most consistently given acceptable quality. Cultivar improvement and equipment that causes less bruising during harvest and sorting will be required for increased mechanization for fresh markets. Mechanical pruning of blackberries, blueberries, grapes and raspberries can reduce costs by up to 80%. The audience will be involved in discussion of advancements in mechanization techniques.

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Benjamin Mullinix, Gerard Krewer, and Paul Sumner

'Climax' and 'Tifblue' blueberry cultivars were harvested, cooled, and later warmed to room temperature for use in individual berry dropping experiments. Surfaces used were concrete, “Softer NoBruze” and “Poron #7R70-Grey.” Berries in the check were not dropped. Three groups of 25 berries were dropped individually from various heights ranging from .5 ft to 7 ft. Initially, berries were cut to determine percent flesh showing bruising. Later, berries were rolled between fingers and assigned a firmness: firm, medium firm, or soft. The first two firmnesses are considered marketable. Fruit tended to bruise more when harvested later in season. More bruising occurred with higher drop heights. More marketable fruit resulted from thicker padding. Repeated dropping increased bruising. “NoBruze” was superior to “Poron” at any thickness. Many berries in the mechanical harvester have to drop over a foot onto a metal surface; padding these surfaces should increase percent of marketable (undamaged) berry yield.

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Travis Robert Alexander, Carolyn F. Ross, Emily A. Walsh, and Carol A. Miles

harvest imparted greater bruising to ‘Brown Snout’ fruit than hand harvest, and this physical damage resulted in significant yield loss postharvest when fruit were not immediately processed or cold-stored. The juice quality characteristics of ‘Brown Snout

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Phillipa J. Jackson and F. Roger Harker

Electrical impedance was used to determine the extent of tissue damage that occurred as a result of bruising of apple fruit (Malus ×domestica Borkh, cvs. Granny Smith and Splendour). Impedance measurements were made before and after bruising. Plots of reactance against resistance at 36 spot frequencies between 50 Hz and 1 MHz traced a semicircular arc, which contracted in magnitude after bruising. A number of characteristics of these curves were then related to bruise weight. The change in resistance that occurred as a result of fruit impact (ΔR50Hz) was the best predictor of bruise weight, with r2 values up to 0.71. Before bruising, resistance of fruit was higher in `Splendour' than in `Granny Smith' (P < 0.001), and at 0 °C than at 20 °C (P < 0.001), but was not influenced by fruit weight. The influence of apple cultivar and temperature on electrical impedance may cause difficulties when implementing these measurements in a commercial situation. However, further development of electrical impedance spectroscopy methodologies may result in convenient research techniques for assessing bruise weight without having to wait for browning of the flesh.