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Benedict C. Posadas, Patricia R. Knight, Christine E.H. Coker, Randal Y. Coker, and Scott A. Langlois

of the Green Industry in the Gulf South.” The socioeconomic survey consisted of eight parts, namely workers’ demographic characteristics, nursery characteristics, nursery automation, greenhouse automation, labor and capital markets, pesticide and

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Christian Nansen, Rachel Purington, and Machiko Murdock

critical component of phytotoxicity assessments, factors such as labor shortages and operational costs are driving a growing demand for automation of agricultural practices. Automation may include crop monitoring, and detection and diagnosis of arthropod

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Yai Ulrich Adegbola, Paul R. Fisher, and Alan W. Hodges

greenhouse facilities. Although there is limited labor-related information available for the greenhouse industry, ≈25.4% of all tasks in these large greenhouse operations have been estimated to be performed with some kind of mechanization or automation

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Growers Consider Implementation of Automation Innovations in automation technology are in increased demand in response to rising labor costs and changes in labor forces. Fruit tree and ornamental nursery tree growers in three U.S. regions were interviewed

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Pascal Nzokou, Nicholas J. Gooch, and Bert M. Cregg

used earlier in other types of irrigation systems but also combines soil moisture–measuring devices (tensiometers) with data logging and automation in an on-farm setting. The goal of this project was to design, construct, and implement a tensiometer

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Kristin E. Gibson, Alexa J. Lamm, Fallys Masambuka-Kanchewa, Paul R. Fisher, and Celina Gómez

following: economic costs and benefits, increase crop uniformity, improve labor efficiency, implement automation, increase your ability to produce more in the same land area, improve overall plant quality, faster germination or rooting, faster crop time

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study cost-benefit analysis, Gendron et al. (p. 642) report increased yields obtained (2257 lb/acre) using the same amount of water, increased manpower, and investment in automation technology to implement pulsed irrigation. Gross revenue increases

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John Majsztrik, Erik Lichtenberg, and Monica Saavoss

Automation can improve irrigation efficiency, but automation needs both hardware and software to do so. Many soil-moisture-sensor-based systems use hardware to measure and track substrate moisture levels and specialized software to display data

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William D. Wheeler, Paul Thomas, Marc van Iersel, and Matthew Chappell

worker acquisition and retention difficult ( Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2015 ; U.S. Census Bureau, 2015 ). Automation and mechanization are means by which horticultural producers are overcoming labor challenges ( Posadas et al., 2008 ). Automation has

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Jeff B. Million and Thomas H. Yeager

output as the current irrigation run time. Irrigation control system. Irrigation for all treatments was controlled automatically using a programmable logic controller (PLC). We used a 16-outlet PLC (D0-DA06; Automation Direct, Atlanta, GA) with an