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Hunter C. Smith, Jason A. Ferrell, and Tyler J. Koschnick

performance and investigate a drench application method for flurprimidol to improve overall growth regulation. Materials and Methods Expt. 1: Viburnum trimming time and flurprimidol performance. Established Viburnum odoratissium and V. suspensum hedges

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Julia A. Cartabiano and Jessica D. Lubell

(Bartr.), and Viburnum acerifolium (L.). These native shrubs have the potential to become revenue-generating crops for the nursery industry if successful propagation protocols are developed. For example, Amelanchier laevis (alleghany serviceberry) is

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Jessica D. Lubell and Jacob A. Griffith Gardner

. Plant Prop. Soc. 63 275 276 Lubell, J.D. Shrestha, P. 2016 Optimizing container production of American fly honeysuckle ( Lonicera canadensis ), beaked filbert ( Corylus cornuta ), and maple leaf viburnum ( Viburnum acerifolium ) Native Plants J. 17 39 45

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Calvin Chong and Bob Hamersma

Stem cuttings of seven deciduous landscape shrubs {silky dogwood (Cornus amomum Mill.), coralberry (Symphoricarpos orbiculatus Moench), Peegee hydrangea (Hydrangea paniculata Siebold. `Grandiflora'), Bridal-wreath spirea [Spiraea ×vanhoutteii (C. Briot) Zab.], spirea (Spiraea ×bumalda Burv. `Goldmound'), fragrant viburnum (Viburnum farreri Stearn), and weigela [Weigela florida (Bunge) A. DC. `Variegata Nana']} were rooted under mist in 100% perlite (no sludge) medium or in mixtures of 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, or 60% (v/v) of raw paper mill sludge and perlite. There was a large linear reduction in percent rooting of viburnum (from 80% to 21% with 0% and 60% sludge, respectively) in response to increasing level of sludge. The mean root count per cutting also was significantly decreased, from 14 to 5. However, the length of longest root was unaffected. In contrast, all the other species ranked good to excellent in rooting, regardless of the level of sludge. Differences, if any, in rooting performance were not of practical significance.

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Aaron L. Warsaw, R. Thomas Fernandez, Bert M. Cregg, and Jeffrey A. Andresen

. ‘Atrovirens’, and Viburnum dentatum L. ‘Ralph Senior’ were classified as low water users by Warsaw et al. (2009) in an irrigation experiment in 2006. These species were selected for the current study because they could be grouped together based on similar

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Richard C. Beeson Jr. and Thomas H. Yeager

Marketable size plants of sweet viburnum (Viburnum odoratissimum Ker-Gawl.), waxleaf ligustrum (Ligustrum japonicum Thunb.), and azalea (Rhododendron spp. L. `Southern Charm') grown in 11.4-L containers were irrigated with overhead impact sprinklers at container spacings ranging from 0 to 51 cm apart. Water reaching the substrate surface was quantified and the percentage of that applied calculated as percent capture (% capture). Percent capture is defined as the percentage of water falling above the plant within a projected vertical cylinder of a container that reaches the substrate surface. For all species, % capture increased linearly with the decline in adjacent canopy interaction, which results from canopies extending beyond the diameter of a container. Increases in total leaf area or leaf area outside the cylinder of a container, in conjunction with increasing distance between containers, were significantly (P < 0.05) correlated with increases in % capture for ligustrum and viburnum. Increases in % capture partially compensated for decreases in percentage of production area occupied by viburnum containers as distances between containers increased, but not for the other two species. Under commercial conditions, optimal irrigation efficiency would be achieved when plants are grown at the minimum spacing required for commercial quality. This spacing should not extend beyond the point where canopies become isolated.

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R.G. Linderman, E.A. Davis, and J.L. Marlow

Many nursery crops are susceptible to root and foliage diseases caused by numerous species of Phytophthora. Phytophthora ramorum causes sudden oak death of trees and ramorum leaf blight and shoot dieback on numerous nursery plants, including rhododendron (Rhododendron spp.), viburnum (Viburnum spp.), pieris (Pieris spp.), and camellia (Camellia spp.) in Europe, the United States, and British Columbia, Canada. We sought to evaluate relative susceptibility of a selection of ornamental nursery crops by inoculating detached leaves with several species of Phytophthora known to infect rhododendrons, and to compare the relative virulence on those species to isolates of P. ramorum. The results indicated that many plants were susceptible under these experimental conditions, while others were not. On a given host, symptoms caused by all species of Phytophthora were identical except for differences in pathogen virulence. Plant species were identical except for differences in pathogen virulence. Plant species within genera or cultivars within species varied in susceptibility to isolates of P. ramorum and other species of Phytophthora. Phytophthora ramorum, P. citricola, P. citrophthora, and P. nicotianae were the most virulent pathogens on most of the host plants inoculated. Some plants were susceptible to several species of Phytophthora, while others were susceptible only to P. ramorum. Inoculation of detached leaves of `Nova Zembla' rhododendron, lilac (Syringa vulgaris), or doublefile viburnum (Viburnum plicatum var. tomentosum) under controlled conditions with different species of Phytophthora or isolates of P. ramorum (both mating types) indicated significant relative differences in species or isolate virulence.

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Rita L. Hummel

Four film-forming antitranspirants, Vapor Gard, Envy, Wilt-Pruf, and Folicote, and a new metabolic antitranspirant UC86177 were applied to container-grown Ulmus parvifolia Jacq. (Chinese elm), Malus sargentii Rehd. (Sargent's crabapple), Viburnum plicatum tomentosum Thunb. (doubleflle viburnum), Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. `Early Giant' (tomato), Petunia × hybrids Hort. Vilm-Andr. `Royal Pearls' (petunia), and Impatiens wallerana Hook. f. `Blitz Orange' (impatiens) plants. Water status was assessed by the following methods: transpiration as water loss per unit leaf area, wilt by visual evaluation, and xylem pressure potential (XPP) determined with a pressure chamber. Antitranspirant treatment had no beneficial effect on water status of doublefile viburnum. In comparison to control plants, results of wilt ratings, XPP, and transpiration measurements for the elm, crabapple, tomato, petunia, and impatiens plants can be summarized as follows: UC86177-treated plants showed significantly less stress in 11 measures and were not different once; Wilt-Pruf was beneficial 10 times and not different twice; Folicote was beneficial nine times and not different three times; Vapor Gard produced eight beneficial results and four similar results; and Envy was beneficial three times and no different nine times. Species differences in response to antitranspirants as well as differences in product efficacy were demonstrated. UC86177 antitranspirant was shown to be as or more effective in controlling water status than the film-forming antitranspirants and may have potential for protecting various plant species against water stress.

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A.M. Shirazi and M.V. Thierry

It is not well known how cold-hardy new buds and emerging leaves or flowers are during spring. Extreme temperature fluctuations that sometimes bring early frost in spring (April–May) are very common in northern latitudes and cause severe damage to emerging leaves and flowers. Even though most woody plants can tolerate frost in spring, others show early tissue damage and can fully recover. There are some trees, e.g., Japanese maples (Acer palmatum) that when leaves are damaged due to spring frost, the results include severe dieback and eventual death. We tested new flowers and leaves of four crabapples: Malus ×micromalus, M. sargentii, `Mary Potter', and M. hupehensis, after budbreak for 3 years using electrical conductivity (EC) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) in spring: May 1997, Apr. 1998, and Apr. 2000, at The Morton Arboretum. Both flowers and leaves can tolerate from –6 to –12 °C and we observed higher ion leakage in leaves than flowers. The high temperature exotherm (HTE) of flowers were –8 to –10 °C in April. In a companion study, testing other species that had premature budbreak due to “near lethal” (sublethal) freezing stress in Jan. 2001, the following HTE were observed: Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas) flower (about –7.5 °C), Spindle trees leaves (about –6 °C), Judd's viburnum (Viburnum ×juddii) (about –8 °C), Brevipetala witch-hazel (Hamamelis mollis`Brevipetala') flower (about –5 °C), redbud (Cercis candensis) flower (about –9 °C), flowering quince (Chaenomeles ×superba) flower (–8 °C). Multiple LTE at –13, –18, –22, and –27 °C were observed for Judd's viburnum. This information could be useful for selection and breeding of woody plants.

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Calvin Chong and Bob Hamersma

Terminal stem cuttings of four evergreens [arborvitae (Thuja occidentalis L.), `Calgary Carpet' juniper (Juniperus sabina L.), `Hetzii' juniper (Juniperus virginiana L.), and Tamarix juniper (Juniperus sabina L.)] and four deciduous {Amur maple (Acer ginnala Maxim.), common lilac (Syringa vulgaris L.), ninebark [Physocarpus opulifolius (L.) Maxim.], and viburnum (Viburnum farreri Stearn)} woody landscape shrubs were treated with 0%, 0.1%, 0.3%, or 0.8% IBA mixed in talc or with 0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 1.0%, or 1.5% IBA dissolved in 95% ethanol, radiator antifreeze (95% ethylene glycol), or windshield washer fluid (47.5% methanol). None of the carriers were phytotoxic to the cuttings. Cuttings treated with IBA in radiator antifreeze or windshield washer fluid produced rooting in most taxa similar to those treated with IBA in ethanol. Cuttings of the evergreen taxa produced more roots with liquid than with talc IBA at similar concentration ranges. There were some differences in rooting performance (expressed in terms of percent rooting, mean root count per rooted cutting, and length of the longest root per cutting) of taxa to solvents and IBA concentrations. However, such differences, if any, were generally small or commercially insignificant, except for ninebark, which rooted optimally with no IBA and exhibited a large reduction in percent rooting with increasing IBA concentrations in windshield washer fluid. Chemical name used: indolebutyric acid (IBA).