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Todd C. Einhorn, Cecil Stushnoff, Ann E. McSay, Phil L. Forsline, Sam Cox, Joel R.L. Ehrenkranz, and Loretta Sandoval

Phlorizin is known for its role in reducing glucotoxicity and has a long history of use in diabetes research. In addition, its contribution to the pool of total phenolics adds to the overall health benefits attributed to fruit. Phlorizin is limited to Rosaceae family plants, of which apple comprises its current commercial source; however, limited information exists regarding its biodiversity among apple taxa. A subset of 22 taxa from a core collection of apple accessions representative of the global genetic diversity of apple was used to investigate the biodiversity of phlorizin present in apple shoots and in fruit relative to total phenolic content and free radical scavenging capacity. Fruit and shoots were harvested from the USDA Plant Genetic Resources Unit in Geneva, N.Y. Validation and quantification of phlorizin was conducted using a rigorous high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) procedure. Total phenolics in fruit, assayed using a Folin-Ciocalteu method and expressed as gallic acid equivalents, ranged from 227 to 7181 mg·L-1

and were strongly related to 2,2' azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) antioxidant capacity for the core collection (r= 0.778). On a molar basis, phlorizin had lower antioxidant capacity than other major phenolic compounds present in apple fruit, but was more effective than ascorbic acid. Phlorizin yield in dormant apple shoots, expressed as percent weight, ranged from 0.9% to 5.5%. A rapid, 96 well micro-plate spectrophotometric assay was also developed to aid in the screening of multiple samples for selection of high phlorizin yielding apple taxa. Spectrophotometry overestimated phlorizin content as expected, but the calibration curve between HPLC and spectrophotometry was acceptable, r 2 = 0.88.

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E.T. Stafne and J.S. Brown

A computerized relational database is an efficient and powerful way to store, retrieve, query, and manipulate data. Databases have been prevalent in the scientific community for several years but, recently, have become more immediately available. Personal computers and local area networks (LAN) have revolutionized the accessibility of shared data. At the USDA-ARS Sugarcane Field Station, a database has been created to streamline the entry and recovery of data for the breeding program using Microsoft (MS) Access 2000, a readily available and inexpensive product, which makes it highly adaptable to a variety of breeding programs. Data collection from the sugarcane breeding program has previously consisted of field books and separate computer files. This method of documentation can lead to errors and lost data, therefore a multi-user database was needed to avoid continued problems in data handling. Data entry is performed though a series of self-explanatory forms. Once entered, data can be accessed through the LAN and easily sorted or grouped as desired or queried for items of interest. Reports can then be output as a means of storing important hard copy records. Data from stage I and stage II (the first two clonally propagated selection stages) of the breeding program have currently been included in the database, as well as the seedling stage (true seed planting). Future plans are to incorporate data from stage III and IV (the final two clonally propagated selection stages). The database also handles the Canal Point breeding collection inventory, crossing information, seed (fuzz) inventory, and pedigree tracking. This type of database has widely applicable properties that can be implemented to handle data for any crop, either agronomic or horticultural.

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John R. Stommel, Judith A. Abbott, and Robert A. Saftner

1 To whom reprint requests should be addressed; e-mail stommelj@ba.ars.usda.gov .

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Mark P. Widrlechner, Christopher Daly, Markus Keller, and Kim Kaplan

slightly different approach was taken by Wyman [ U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), 1936 ], who also produced a revised plant hardiness map for the United States, this time based on the PH statistic averaged over the years 1895–1935. However, one

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Briana L. Gross, Gayle M. Volk, Christopher M. Richards, Philip L. Forsline, Gennaro Fazio, and C. Thomas Chao

methods. The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) National Plant Germplasm System, Plant Genetic Resources Unit (PGRU) apple collection in Geneva, NY, conserves key genetic resources useful for breeding and research

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Jack E. Staub, Isabelle Y. Delannay, and Jin-Feng Chen

Seed of C. hystrix -derived IBLs from a hand-pollinated greenhouse increase may be obtained by addressing requests to P.W. Simon (philipp.simon@ars.usda.gov), Vegetable Crops Research, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service

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John R. Stommel

1 E-mail address: stommelj@ba.ars.usda.gov We thank Lipton Foods, Campbell Soup Co., and Heinz USA for inclusion of these lines in their trials. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part by the

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Jinhe Bai, Elizabeth Baldwin, Jack Hearn, Randy Driggers, and Ed Stover

. Driggers, R. Hearn, J. 2014 Volatile profile comparison of USDA sweet orange–like hybrids versus ‘Hamlin’ and ‘Ambersweet’ HortScience 49 1262 1267 Bai, J. Hagenmaier, R.D. Baldwin, E.A. 2002 Volatile response of four apple varieties with different coatings

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Jack E. Staub, Matthew D. Robbins, Steven R. Larson, and Paul G. Johnson

various horticultural applications, especially in semiarid regions of the western United States ( Dewey et al., 2006 ; Thetford et al., 2009 ). In such regions (USDA hardiness zones 3–5; annual precipitation 254–610 mm) relatively short-statured (15–30 cm

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S.J. Stringer, J.M. Spiers, and A.D. Draper

Two new southern highbush blueberry cultivars, `Dixieblue' and `Gupton', will provide growers with new blueberry cultivars having excellent fruit quality that ripen relatively early in the season, during the profitable early fresh-market window. Berries of `Dixieblue' are light blue, medium in size, and their flat shape makes them most attractive. `Gupton' is very productive and berry quality is also excellent. The performance of these cultivars represent an improvement over most currently available southern highbush blueberry cultivars due to 1) their durability and performance on both upland and sandy soils endemic to the Gulf Coast and 2) consistent production of high quality fruit that will meet the demand for early ripening fresh-market blueberries. The new rabbiteye blueberry cultivar, `DeSoto', represents an improvement over currently available rabbiteye blueberry cultivars for late-season production. `DeSoto' produces medium-to-large fruit having excellent color, flavor, and firmness Plants of `DeSoto' are productive, vigorous but semi-dwarf, upright and spreading. It's semi-dwarf growth habit, which is unique among currently grown rabbiteye blueberries, results in bushes that attain a maximum height of about 2 meters upon maturity, reducing the necessity of top-pruning that is required for all other cultivars. `DeSoto' blooms two to three weeks later than early-to-mid season cultivars such as `Climax' and `Tifblue', providing insurance against late-spring freezes. Similarly, its fruit mature 21 to 14 days or more, respectively after these same cultivars. `DeSoto' will provide niche market blueberry growers with a new cultivar having productivity, plant vigor, fruit quality, and very late ripening period that will extend their marketing season. The new evergreen ornamental blueberry, `Native Blue', is low growing, compact and finely branched with small glaucous leaves, traits that are quite typical of V. darowii. `Native Blue' has beautiful foliage that changes color in different seasons. Mature leaves are darker green while newer growth exhibits a light pinkish hue that changes to a bluish green. Other desirable characteristics of `Native Blue' are its dwarf growth habit, hardy and vigorous growth, and its capacity for a high level of fruit production that serves as an attractant to birds and other wildlife. `Native Blue' will provide southeastern U.S. nurserymen, landscapers, and homeowners with a novel and beautiful new ornamental shrub that will complement plantings of azaleas, camellias, crepe myrtles, etc.