The beneficial effect on yield and quality of `Anna' apple fruits for the application of ascobine at 0.1% and citrine at 0.6% was studied during 1995 and 1996. Results showed that two citrine sprays at start of growth and 30 days later of ascobine at 0.1% or citrine at 0.6% were of material promotion effect on yield, fruit weight, total soluble solids, and total sugars, while reducing the total acidity. Both fertilizers were equally very effective in all the studied characters. The most striking and promising treatment was the application of ascobine at 0.1% or citrine at 0.6% twice during the growing season; i.e., growth start at 30 days later.
F.F. Ahmed, A.M. Akl, A.A. Gobara, and A.E.M. Monsour
Gerson R. de L. Fortes and Silvio L. Teixeira
The aim of this work was to study different apple of somatic material as callus and adventitious shoots are concerned, for further utilization in the research of somaclonal variation. The somatic materials were: leaf discs, cotyledons and hypocotyls of Gala apple seedlings, cultivated in a MS medium added by B5 vitamins in addition to (in mg/l): BAP (1,0), NAA (0,5) mio-inositol (100,0) sucrose (30,0 g/l) and solidified in agar (6,0 g/l). The several times of explant exposition to the dark affected the final callus weight. Callus weight derived from leaf discs were higher than those for cotyledons and hypocotyls. Explants exposed directly under light or up to two weeks in the dark showed less percentage of regenerative callus as compared to those of three weeks in the dark. The leaf explants presented the highest percentage of regenerative callus. The least response was obtained for those derived from hypocotyls. The highest number of adventitious shoots was obtained keeping the explants three weeks in the dark as compared to directed light exposition.
Raquel Gomez and Lee Kalcsits
‘Honeycrisp’ is among the most widely grown apple cultivars in the United States and ‘WA 38’ is a new apple cultivar released in Washington State. ‘Honeycrisp’ is highly susceptible to bitter pit and other physiological disorders; however, ‘WA 38’ is not susceptible to bitter pit but little is known about its susceptibility to other disorders. Bitter pit is a calcium-related disorder that has been associated with localized calcium deficiencies in fruit in addition to the proportions of calcium relative to the presence of other nutrients like potassium and magnesium. The objective of this study was to compare physiological differences and fruit quality between ‘Honeycrisp’ and ‘WA 38’ to determine how these differences might correspond to differences in mineral nutrient composition and bitter pit susceptibility. Here, ‘Honeycrisp’ and ‘WA 38’ elemental composition in leaves, fruit, and xylem sap was measured every 20 days starting 30 days after full bloom and compared with leaf gas exchange and stem water potential. ‘Honeycrisp’ had greater foliar transpiration rates that corresponded with greater calcium in the leaves and lower leaf K+Mg/Ca ratio, when compared with ‘WA 38’. In contrast, fruit calcium concentrations were higher for ‘WA 38’ with lower K+Mg/Ca ratios. Xylem conductance was higher during late summer in ‘WA 38’ compared with ‘Honeycrisp’. ‘WA 38’ fruit was denser than ‘Honeycrisp’ and more research is needed to determine whether differences in fruit structure may affect susceptibility to bitter pit in apple.
Chris Gottschalk and Steve van Nocker
macroscopically visible within the shoot without dissection ( Malus × domestica ). ( C–D ) By Stage 2, individual flowers were easily apparent as a tight cluster [e.g., in ( C ) M . × domestica ] or loose cluster [e.g., ( D ) M. fusca ]. At this stage, in ( C
Hatsuhiko Okada, Yoshitaka Ohashi, Mamoru Sato, Hideyuki Matsuno, Toshiya Yamamoto, Hoytaek Kim, Tatsuro Tukuni, and Sadao Komori
Guilford, P. Prakash, S. Zhu, J.M. Rikkerink, E. Gardiner, S. Bassett, H. Forster, R. 1997 Microsatellites in Malus × domestica (apple): Abundance, polymorphism and cultivar identification Theor
Carol A. Miles, Travis R. Alexander, Gregory Peck, Suzette P. Galinato, Christopher Gottschalk, and Steve van Nocker
Current demands for diverse, natural, and locally produced beverages have resulted in the reappearance of hard apple ( Malus × domestica ) ciders in food markets, restaurants, and bars. In 2018, revenues from hard cider, perry [fermented pear
Kanin J. Routson, Ann A. Reilley, Adam D. Henk, and Gayle M. Volk
Blacksburg, VA Dennis F.G. Jr 2008 Malus ×domestica : Apple 661 674 Janick J. Paull R.E. The encyclopedia of fruit and nuts CABI Publishing Cambridge, MA Dunmire, C.C. 2004 Gardens of new Spain: How Mediterranean plants and foods changed America University of
Lidia Lozano, Ignasi Iglesias, Diego Micheletti, Michela Troggio, Satish Kumar, Richard K. Volz, Andrew C. Allan, David Chagné, and Susan E. Gardiner
in apple ( Malus × domestica Borkh.) breeding programmes: Prospects, challenges and strategies Tree Genet. Genomes 8 1 14 Kumar, S. Garrick, D.J. Bink, M.C. Whitworth, C. Chagné, D. Volz, R.K. 2013 Novel genomic approaches unravel genetic
Keiko Sekido, Yusaku Hayashi, Kunio Yamada, Katsuhiro Shiratake, Shogo Matsumoto, Tsutomu Maejima, and Hiromitsu Komatsu
Apples ( Malus × domestica Borkh.) are produced commercially in most temperate countries not only for fresh use, but also for processed goods such as juice and in slices as an ingredient for cakes, pies, and tarts. ‘Fuji’, ‘Shinano Sweet’, ‘Orin
Briana L. Gross, Gayle M. Volk, Christopher M. Richards, Philip L. Forsline, Gennaro Fazio, and C. Thomas Chao
). Table 3. Plant Introduction (PI) or Geneva Malus (GMAL) number, cultivar name (followed by species name if not Malus × domestica ), and country of origin for matching genotypes or sets of genotypes, arranged horizontally. z Fig. 2. Chromatograms of