-Shirley, 2001 ), Petunia hybrida ( Beld et al., 1989 ), and Malus crabapple ( Shen et al., 2012 ; Tian et al., 2011 ), as well as in species that bear fleshy fruits, such as apple ( Malus domestica ) ( Chagné et al., 2013 ) and grape ( Vitis vinifera
Ji Tian, Ke-ting Li, Shi-ya Zhang, Jie Zhang, Ting-ting Song, Yong-jun Zhu, and Yun-cong Yao
Lulu Zhang, Yijun Yin, Yunfei Mao, Yeping Liu, Huiling Pang, Xiafei Su, Yanli Hu, and Xiang Shen
Ornamental crabapples ( Malus sp.), with their breathtaking display of resplendent blooms in spring and colorful fruit in autumn, are one of the most popular ornamental plants adorning the northern hemisphere ( Cronin et al., 2020 ; Fiala, 1994
Haiyan Wang, Ran Chen, Yuefan Sheng, Weitao Jiang, Rong Zhang, Xuesen Chen, Xiang Shen, Chengmiao Yin, and Zhiquan Mao
), and stomatal conductance ( g S ) ( F ) of Malus hupehensis Rehd. seedlings. SL = replanted sandy loam soil; FL = replanted loam soil; WL = replanted clay loam soil. SX = Sandy loam soil with methyl bromide fumigation; FX = Loam soil with methyl
Catherine A. Neal
systems without exposing roots to sublethal temperatures? Do PiP or other production systems confer an advantage in plant survival and establishment when transplanted into the landscape? Materials and Methods Bare-root crabapple ( Malus
Rong Zhang, Zhubing Yan, Yikun Wang, Xuesen Chen, Chengmiao Yin, and Zhiquan Mao
. harzianum to fruit trees, especially in the context of ARD. In our experiment, T. harzianum was used to make a microbial fertilizer. Malus hupehensis Rehd., a common apple rootstock, was used as the test material, and methyl bromide fumigation was used
Amy K. Szewc-McFadden, Sharon Bliek, Christopher G. Alpha, Warren F. Lamboy, and James R. McFerson
Simple-sequence repeats (SSRs) are efficient and informative DNA markers with great potential for germplasm characterization. When used to characterize large arrays of accessions, such as the core subset of the USDA/ARS Malus collection, SSRs may be more effective than other approaches, such as restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). For example, SSRs can be PCR-amplified and fluorescence-based detected; they also appear to be abundantly disbursed throughout plant genomes and yield abundant polymorphisms in most taxa studied. We are conducting an extensive screening of a size-fractionated library of Malus ×domestica cv. Golden Delicious to identify and characterize selected SSR loci. We are applying genetic information revealed by SSR loci in combination with passport and horticultural data to better comprehend genetic identity and relatedness in Malus germplasm collections and help develop the Malus core subset. Ultimately, application of molecular marker data will permit improved conservation and use of genetic resources.
C.J. Simon and N.F. Weeden
The ribosomal genes of the two crab apple (Malus) genotypes White Angel' and `Robusta 5' were characterized to determine the extent of between- and within-genotype heterogeneity. Initial investigations with a cloned sequence of soybean rDNA failed to detect some Malus intergenic spacer region fragments. An alternative probing method that used electrophoretically purified Malus rDNA was developed. Double-digests of total genomic DNA with combinations of 13 restriction endonucleases identified the positions of 35 restriction sites. Restriction site polymorphism was observed both between and within the crab apple genotypes. Ribosomal DNA from White Angel' was cloned in phage and plasmid vectors and mapped with 11 enzymes. The region of the spacer causing length heterogeneity was identified. These clones should be useful as genetic markers and for examining population dynamics and systematic of Malus and closely related taxa.
Travis Robert Alexander, Jacqueline King, Andrew Zimmerman, and Carol A. Miles
Cider is fermented apple ( Malus ×domestica Borkh.) juice, and is often referred to as hard cider in the United States in contrast to the nonfermented, unfiltered apple juice that is referred to as fresh cider or sweet cider ( Khanizadeh et al
Roberto Hauagge and James N. Cummins
In a study of chilling requirement in Malus, broad-sense heritability estimates for the length of vegetative bud dormancy in 43 clones growing under simulated subtropical winter conditions were 0.76 ± 0.04 in 1986 and 0.81 ± 0.04 in 1987. Narrow-sense heritability estimates were 0.66 ± 0.13 in 1986 and 0.69 ± 0.13 in 1987. Seedlings with low chilling requirements (CR) were not observed in crosses where both parents had high bud-chilling requirements. `Koningszuur' did not transmit its long CR to its seedlings. Open-pollinated (OP) seedling populations from the Malus × domestics Borkh. cultivars Anna, Dorsett Golden, Ein Shemer, Khashabi, Winter Banana, and Zabaoani, and the species and interspecific hybrids M. baccata L. DE#98, M. brevipes Rehd., M. ×robusta (Carr.) Rehd. DE#485, M. × robusta No. 5 (`R5'), M. rockii, M. turesi Rehd. PI 34143, and `Rosedale' had at least 5% of their descendants in the lower CR classes. In all but one instance, 50% or more of `Anna' descendants had low CR. Many of these seedlings were within a few classes of the extreme low CR. It is postulated that the low-CR character present in `Anna' is controlled by at least one major dominant gene and that minor genes interact to modulate its effects. Very low-CR cultivars have a shallow bud dormancy. This highly heritable component for low bud CR is related to a failure to develop a deep dormancy state, rather than to acceleration of the termination of the dormancy process.
Meiling Zhang, Ming Chen, Zhen Wang, Ting Wu, Yi Wang, Xinzhong Zhang, and Zhenhai Han
is little known. Malus xiaojinensis is a native apple rootstock in China and has been characterized by its high efficiency for iron uptake ( Han et al., 1998 ; Wu et al., 2012 ; Zha et al., 2014 ). In this study, we detected the spatial