Improving the drought tolerance of widely used bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. var. dactylon] is important for water conservation and producing quality turf with limited irrigation. Mutants of bermudagrass were generated using gamma-ray irradiation with an aim toward developing dwarf and drought-resistant bermudagrass. The objectives of this study were to compare morphological characteristics between radiation-induced mutants and the wild-type of bermudagrass and to determine antioxidant responses associated with changes in drought resistance in the bermudagrass mutants. Three mutant lines (7-9, 10-5, and 10-12) that exhibit slow growth and good turf quality were chosen for this study. Plants were exposed to drought stress by withholding irrigation in a greenhouse. Mutant lines had lower canopy height, shorter internodes, and shorter leaves than the wild type under well-watered conditions. Under drought stress, all three dwarf mutant lines maintained higher relative water content and lower ion leakage and malondialdehyde content than the wild type. Antioxidant enzyme activities decreased in response to the drought stress in the mutant lines and the wild type, whereas nonenzymatic antioxidants increased under drought stress. Compared with the wild type, higher enzyme activities and antioxidant contents were maintained in mutant lines under drought stress. Our results indicated that bermudagrass mutants induced by gamma radiation exhibited dwarf characteristics and improved drought resistance, which was associated with maintenance of higher levels of antioxidant enzyme activities and nonenzymatic antioxidant contents.
Shaoyun Lu, Zhongcheng Wang, Yuejing Niu, Zhenfei Guo, and Bingru Huang
Maurizio Giolo, Stefano Macolino, Erica Barolo, and Filippo Rimi
, D. Freund, S. Fiehn, O. Heyer, A.G. Hincha, D.K. 2006 Natural genetic variation of freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis Plant Physiol. 142 98 112 Harlvonson, W.L. Guertin, P. 2003 Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. USGS weeds in the Westproject: Status of
Mingying Xiang, Justin Q. Moss, Dennis L. Martin, Kemin Su, Bruce L. Dunn, and Yanqi Wu
Bermudagrass is native to Africa, widely distributed, and commonly found in tropical and subtemperate areas ( Taliaferro et al., 2004 ). It is important for forage, turfgrass use, and soil and water conservation. Hybrid bermudagrass [ Cynodon
Aaron J. Patton, Jon M. Trappe, and Michael D. Richardson
Covers, mulches, and erosion-control blankets are often used to establish turf. There are reports of various effects of seed cover technology on the germination and establishment of warm-season grasses. The objective of this study was to determine how diverse cover technologies influence the establishment of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon), buffalograss (Buchloe dactyloides), centipedegrass (Eremochloa ophiuroides), seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum), and zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica) from seed. Plots were seeded in June 2007 or July 2008 with the various turfgrass species and covered with cover technologies, including Curlex, Deluxe, and Futerra products, jute, Poly Jute, polypropylene, straw, straw blanket, Thermal blanket, and the control. Establishment was reduced in straw- and polyethylene-covered plots due to decreased photosythentically active radiation penetration or excessive temperature build-up, respectively. Overall, Deluxe and Futerra products, jute, and Poly Jute allowed for the highest establishment of these seeded warm-season grasses.
Christopher R. Johnston and Gerald M. Henry
., 2007b; Henry et al., 2008 ). Summer applications of MSMA have been reported to cause reductions in turf quality in both ‘Tifway’ hybrid bermudagrass ( Cynodon dactylon × Cynodon transvaalensis Burtt-Davy) and common bermudagrass [ C. dactylon (L
Lakshmy Gopinath, Dennis L. Martin, Justin Quetone Moss, Yanqi Wu, Shuhao Yu, and James R. Underwood
Suitable tensile strength is essential for sod harvest, transport, and installation. Thirty-nine bermudagrass (Cynodon sp.) entries were evaluated for sod handling quality (SHQ) and sod tensile strength (STS) during 2014–15. The SHQ (a discontinuous qualitative parameter) was evaluated using a 1 to 5 scale with 1 = complete pad separation during handling and 5 = no cracking or separation in the sod pad with excellent quality. The STS (a quantitative parameter) was determined using the force required to shear/separate the sod pad. Sod harvests were conducted at 14, 22, and 24 months after planting (MAP). The entry, harvest date, and their interaction affected STS and SHQ. Entries OKC 1302 and 12-TSB-1 had greater STS than ‘Patriot’ but less STS than ‘Latitude 36’, ‘Tifway’, ‘Astro’, and ‘TifGrand’. The seeded entry PST-R6T9S had the lowest STS and SHQ. The overall mean STS and SHQ were lowest at 22 MAP, which could be attributed to the slow recovery of the entries after Winter 2014. A strong positive correlation (r = 0.92) between STS and SHQ suggests that SHQ can be used as a rapid field method to estimate suitability for sod harvest. A predictive linear relationship between overall STS and overall SHQ (r 2 = 0.85) found predicted STS values of 8.5, 22.6, 36.8, and 51.0 kg⋅dm–2 for overall mean SHQ ratings of 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. The results of this work will help sod producers in cultivar selection and will aid breeders in making commercialization decisions.
Patrick E. McCullough and William Nutt
Bermudagrass [ Cynodon spp. (L.) Rich.] is the most popular turfgrass planted in warm-humid regions ( Beard, 1973 ). Improved seeded cultivars of common bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] have color, quality, and texture comparable to
Thomas E. Eickhoff, Tiffany M. Heng-Moss, and Frederick P. Baxendale
planted in newly developed areas, including southern regions of the United States. As these buffalograss stands experience chinch bug damage, B. occiduus will likely seek out secondary hosts in close proximity, such as bermudagrass [ Cynodon dactylon (L
Gerald Henry, Rebecca Grubbs, Chase Straw, Kevin Tucker, and Jared Hoyle
revenue and property values. Investigation into methods for reducing turfgrass water consumption while maintaining quality may provide a partial solution to this specific problem. Hybrid bermudagrass [ Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. × C. transvaalensis
Connor Bolton, Miguel Cabrera, Mussie Habteselassie, Daniel Poston, and Gerald Henry
bermudagrass [ Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. × Cynodon transvaalensis Burtt Davy] after Bacillus spp. inoculation. Klebsiella variicola is a growth-promoting bacteria that has been observed to colonize the rhizosphere and potentially improve agricultural