Late-season height control of poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima) is difficult since most chemical growth retardants adversely reduce bract size when applied after first bract color. Paclobutrazol (Bonzi) controls stem elongation late in poinsettia crop development but can excessively reduce bract size if improperly applied. Two experiments were conducted to quantify how paclobutrazol application influenced height and bract area of `Freedom' poinsettia. In the first experiment, paclobutrazol was applied at 1 mg·L-1 (ppm) in 118-mL (4.0-fl oz) volumes per pot [(a.i.) 0.12 mg/pot (28,350 mg = 1.0 oz)] as a drench to a new group of plants weekly from the initiation of short days until 1 week before anthesis. Maximum reduction in height and bract area was obtained when paclobutrazol was applied immediately after short days, and the response to paclobutrazol decreased as application time was increasingly delayed toward anthesis. In the second experiment, paclobutrazol was applied weekly after first bract color as either a drench or subapplication at various concentrations. Plant height and bract area were reduced by 23% when 2 mg·L-1 [(a.i.) 0.24 mg/pot) paclobutrazol was applied through subapplication at first color. The effects of paclobutrazol on height and bract area reduction decreased as application time was progressively delayed. Concentrations lower than 1 mg·L-1 had no significant effect on height or bract area reduction, regardless of application time or method. Generally, the reduction in height and bract area was larger when paclobutrazol was applied through subapplication. The combined results from both experiments indicate that paclobutrazol drench applications after flower initiation concomitantly reduce plant height (internode extension) and bract area. Therefore, drench applications should be delayed as long as possible to limit reduction in bract size.
Genhua Niu, Royal Heins, and Will Carlson
Christopher S. Cramer and Mark P. Bridgen
Mussaenda, a tropical ornamental shrub developed in the Philippines is being examined as a potential greenhouse potted crop in the United States. Showy sepals of white, picotee, pink or red and fragrant, yellow flowers make Mussaenda an attractive patted plans however, the profuse upright growth habit of some Mussaenda cultivars is undesirable for pot plant culture. With this in mind experiments were conducted to determine the effects of three growth regulators at two concentrations each, as well as the application method and the number of applications on Mussaenda plant height.
Three growth regulators, daminozide (B-Nine), ancymidol (A-Rest), and paclobutrazol (Bonzi) were applied at two commercially recommended rates and two application methods (spray or drench). The treatment were daminozide at 2500 ppm and 5000 ppm (spray), ancymidol at 33 and 66 ppm (spray) and at 0.25 and 0.50 mg/pot (drench), and paclobutrazol at 25 and 50 ppm (spray) and at 0.125 and 0.25 mg/pot (drench). In subsequent experiments, the same growth regulators were applied with an increase in concentration and either two or three applications. The treatments were daminozide at 5000 ppm (spray), ancymidol at 66 and 132 ppm (spray) and at 0.50 and 1.0 mg/pot (drench), and paclobutrazol at 50 and 100 ppm (spray) and at 0.25 and 0.50 mg/pot (drench).
The most attractive potted plants were produced with two applications of daminozide at 5000 ppm or two applications of ancymidol at 0.5 mg/pot (drench). Higher concentrations or additional applications excessively reduced plant height. Three spray applications of 132 ppm ancymidol also produced an attractive potted plant. Paclobutrazol sprays or drenches at any concentration or application number were ineffective for reducing Mussaenda `Queen Sirikit' plant height.
Laurence C. Pallez, John M. Dole, and Brian E. Whipker
Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) has potential as a potted flowering plant due to short crop time, ease of propagation, and attractive flowers but postharvest life is short and plants can grow too tall. Days from sowing to anthesis differed significantly among six sunflower cultivars and ranged from 52 days for `Big Smile' to 86 days for `Elf' and `Pacino.' Height ranged from 6.0 inches (15.2 cm) for `Big Smile' to 14.9 inches (37.8 cm) for `Pacino', postproduction life ranged from 10 days for `Elf' and `Pacino' to 15 days for `Big Smile', and postproduction chlorosis ratings (1 to 5, with 5 the least) ranged from 5.0 for `Teddy Bear' to 4.4 for `Big Smile' after 5 days and 4.2 for `Teddy Bear' to 3.1 for `Sunspot' after 10 days. Promalin (a gibberellin and benzyladenine mixture) applied at 62.5 to 500 ppm (mg·L-1) was not commercially useful in extending postproduction life. Increasing pot size from 4 to 6 inches (10 to 15 cm) in diameter decreased postproduction life and plants in 5-inch-diameter (13 cm) pots were tallest. Pots with three plants flowered more quickly than those with one or five plants and pots with five plants had 1 day shorter postharvest life than those with one or three pots. All cultivars were facultative short-day plants, except for `Sundance Kid', which was day neutral. Storing potted sunflowers at 41 °F (5 °C) for 1 week did not reduce postproduction life, which was 11 to 12 d; however, 2 weeks of cold storage resulted in foliar damage. Three cultivars were found to be most suitable for pot production, `Elf', `Pacino' and `Teddy Bear', with one or three plants per 6-inch pot and sprayed with daminozide (B-Nine) at 8,000 ppm, or drenched with paclobutrazol (Bonzi) at 2 mg/pot (a.i.) (28,350 mg = 1.0 oz).
Garry V. McDonald* and Michael A. Arnold
Previous experiments indicated that plant growth regulators applied during greenhouse production can have a negative effect on subsequent landscape performance of pansy (Viola × wittrockiana H. Gams `Crown Yellow'). Three experiments were initiated in September 2003 to determine the affects of paclobutrazol and ancymidol on production and landscape performance of ornamental cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala A.P. deCandolle `Dynasty Pink'), calendula (Calendula officinalis L. `Bon Bon Orange'), and pansy. Seeds were germinated in plug trays (1.5 cm3 inverted cone-shaped pockets) in a growth chamber with a 12 h photoperiod at 25/21 °C day/night. Plants were sprayed with paclobutrazol (formaulated as Bonzi) or ancymidol (formulated as Arest) at plug stage (cabbage, pansy, and calendula on 25 Sept., 2 Oct., 11 Nov., respectively), at 14 days after transplant into 0.73 L containers, or at both stages. Paclobutrazol was applied at 0, 5, 10 or 15 mg·L-1 and ancymidol at 0, 2, 4, or 8 mg·L-1. Cabbage (30 Oct.), pansy (6 Nov.), and calendula (4 Dec.) were transplanted to landscape beds to assess residual effects on growth and flowering. Cabbage and calendula, showed minor differences in growth during greenhouse production due to varying rates of either paclobutrazol or ancymidol, but exhibited a greater response to application time. Only minor differences in growth occurred with pansy during greenhouse production due to rate or time of application using ancymidol, but exhibited major differences in response to both rate and time of application using paclobutrazol. Residual effects on growth and flowering during landscape performance phase will be discussed.
Christopher S. Cramer and Mark P. Bridgen
Mussaenda, a tropical, hybrid ornamental plant from India and the Philippines, is being evaluated as a potential greenhouse ported crop in the united States. Showy sepals of white, picotee (White with rosy edges), light pink, dark pink, or red complemented by fragrant, yellow flowers and dark green, pubescent foliage make Mussaenda a very attractive potted plant. However, sometimes the height of Mussaenda is unsuitable for pot plant culture. With the use of chemical growth regulators. plant height is reduced thus making Mussaenda a more feasible potted crop.
In the summer of 1992, a growth regulator study was conducted to evaluate three growth regulators and concentrations capable of reducing plant height in Mussaenda. Daminozide (B-Nine SP), ancymidol (A-Rest), or paclobutrazol (Bonzi) was applied at two concentrations each. Daminozide was tested as a spray at 2500 ppm and 5000 ppm. Ancymidol was applied as a spray at 33 ppm and 66 ppm or as a drench at 0.25 mg/pot and 0.50 mg/pot. Paclobutrazol was tested as a spray at 25 ppm and 50 ppm or as a drench at 0.125 mg/pot and 0.25 mg/pot. Growth regulators were applied as a single application or a double application with two weeks separating applications.
Daminozide at 2500 ppm and 5000 ppm was most effective in controlling plant height. Ancymidol as a drench at 0.25 mg/pot and 0.50 mg/pot was also effective in plant height control. Two applications of these growth regulators were more effective in controlling plant height than a single application.
Shravan Dasoju, Michael R. Evans, and Brian E. Whipker
Paclobutrazol drench applications of 0, 2, and 4 mg a.i./pot were applied to `Pacino' potted sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L.) and `Red Pigmy' tuberous rooted dahlias (Dahlia variabilis Willd.) grown in substrates containing 50%, 60%, 70%, or 80% (by volume) sphagnum peat or coir, with the remainder being perlite, to study the efficacy of paclobutrazol (Bonzi). Potted sunflower plant height differed significantly for peat- and coir-based substrates, with greater plant height being observed in coir-based substrates. Plant diameter was significantly greater at higher percentages of peat or coir in the substrate at 2 and 4 mg of paclobutrazol. Inflorescence diameter also was significantly decreased as paclobutrazol concentration increased. When the percent of height control from the untreated plants for potted sunflower was compared between coir and peat-based substrates, the percent height reduction was similar for peat- and coir-based substrates at 2 mg of paclobutrazol and height control was greater at 4 mg of paclobutrazol in coir-based substrates. The differences in plant growth observed in peat- and coir-based substrates can be attributed to differences in physical properties of these substrates. Dahlia plant height, diameter, and number of days until anthesis were not influenced by substrate type or percentage. However, dahlia growth was significantly reduced as paclobutrazol concentration increased. Coir-based substrates did not reduce the activity of paclobutrazol drenches compared to peat-based substrates, although to compensate for the greater amount of plant growth in coir-based substrates, paclobutrazol concentrations may need to be increased slightly to achieve a similar plant height as with peat-based substrates.
Brian A. Krug, Brian E. Whipker, and Ingram McCall
(excluding the pot) would be considered commercially acceptable ( Barrett et al., 1995 ). Paclobutrazol (Bonzi; Syngenta, Greensboro, N.C.) substrate drench recommendations vary from 8 mg·L −1 ( Dole and Wilkins, 2005 ), 0.5 to 1 mg/pot a.i. ( Barrett et al
Christopher J. Currey, Diane M. Camberato, Ariana P. Torres, and Roberto G. Lopez
, Walnut Creek, CA), 2.0 or 4.0 ppm paclobutrazol (Bonzi; Syngenta Crop Protection, Greensboro, NC), or 1.0 or 2.0 ppm uniconazole (Concise; Fine Americas). For pansy, drenches were solutions containing deionized water (control), 1.0 or 2.0 ppm ancymidol
Linsey A. Newton and Erik S. Runkle
). The general recommended trial concentrations of a commercial formulation of paclobutrazol (Bonzi; Syngenta Crop Protection, Greensboro, NC) on herbaceous potted flowering plants are 30 mg·L −1 for a spray application and 1 mg·L −1 for a drench
Rachael E. Pepin and Janet C. Cole
uniconazole. Proc. Southern Nursery Assn. Res. Conf. 48:267–271 Cox, D.A. 2003 Subirrigating seed geraniums with Bonzi. 12 Nov. 2009. < http://www.umass.edu/umext/floriculture/fact_sheets/specific_crops/bonzi_geranseed.html > Dalziol, J. Lawrence, D.K. 1984