One- to 4-year-old sweet orange trees, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv. Valencia on rough lemon (C. jambhiri Lush.) rootstock, were used in a series of tests on the depth and stability of supercooling in various parts of greenhouse-grown trees held in pots during controlled freezes. Thermocouples were attached to flowers, fruit, leaves, and wood. Supercooling levels were inconsistent, ranging from – 3C to – 7C. Nucleation was spontaneous and well defined by sharp exotherms. Rapid progression of crystallization (≈ 60 cm·min–1) indicated no major obstacles to ice propagation throughout the tree above soil level. The site of initial freezing was variable, with a tendency for trees to freeze from the base of the stem toward the top. The location of tissue damage did not necessarily correspond to the location of initial freeze event. Freezing in the wood often preceded freezing of flowers.
Ulrich Hartmond, Rongcai Yuan, Jacqueline K. Burns, Angela Grant, and Walter J. Kender
Methyl jasmonate (MJ) was tested as a potential abscission chemical to enhance mechanical harvest of `Hamlin' and `Valenica' orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.]. In field experiments, a solution of 1, 5, 10, 20, or 100 mm MJ was applied either as a stem wrap to individual fruit or as a spray to entire trees or canopy sectors. Solutions of 10, 20, and 100 mm MJ resulted in significant and consistent reduction of fruit detachment force and caused fruit drop within 7 to 10 days. Fruit loosening was preceded by an increase in the internal ethylene concentration of fruit similar to that of other experimental abscission compounds. While concentrations of 10 mm and less caused no or negligible phytotoxicity, solutions exceeding 10 mm MJ induced unacceptable levels of leaf abscission.
Kwan Jeong Song, Ed Echeverria, and Hyoung S. Lee
The distribution of sugars (sucrose, glucose, and fructose) and related enzymes between the stem and the blossom halves of `Valencia' oranges [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] was determined at three stages of fruit development. The blossom half contained significantly higher concentrations of sugars during later stages of development and maturation (12% and 20%, respectively). Neither the enzyme marker for sucrose synthesis [sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS)] nor enzymes of CO2 fixation (NADP-malic enzyme, PEP carboxylase, and PEP carboxykinase) were significantly different between the halves. Sucrose synthase (SS), the enzymatic marker for sink strength, had significantly higher activity in the blossom half during later stages of fruit development when rapid sugar accumulation takes place. These data suggest that differential distribution of sugars between the stem and the blossom halves of citrus fruit is, in part, the result of differential sink strength.
Craig E. Kallsen
The potential of petroleum sprays to thin navel orange (Citrus sinensis) crops in the San Joaquin Valley of California was examined in 1996, 1997 and 1998. Petroleum oils had not been used within the experimental site as adjuvants in other sprays or as pesticides in the previous year or during the experiment. `Bonanza' navel oranges trees were treated annually or in alternate years with a light narrow-range petroleum oil [distillation midpoint of 415 °F (213 °C)], a medium narrow-range oil [distillation midpoint of 440 °F (227 °C)] and/or heavier oil [distillation midpoint 470 °F (247 °C)] in a range of applications from 5 to 15% by volume in a total spray volume of 200 gal/acre (1870 L·ha-1). Trees treated with oil in 1996, 1997 and 1998 had 38% and 27% fewer fruit per tree in 1997 and 1998, respectively compared to trees not treated with oil indicating that crop thinning had occurred. In 1998, yield was lower in the trees that had been treated with oil annually for three consecutive years. Consecutive, annual applications of petroleum oil applied 1 to 3 weeks after petal fall produced a shift from smaller fruit sizes to larger fruit sizes beginning the second year.
Luis Pozo, Ana Redondo, Ulrich Hartmond, Walter J. Kender, and Jacqueline K. Burns
Two formulations of the plant growth regulator dikegulac (2,3:4,6-di-O-isopro-pylidene-α-L-xylo-2-hexulofuranosoic acid), consisting of dikegulac-sodium (Atrimmec) or dikegulac:ascorbic acid (1:1) (DAA), as well as 5-chloro-3-methyl-4-nitro-pyrazole at 200 mg·L-1, were applied as foliar sprays to `Hamlin' and `Valencia' orange trees (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) at two dates during the harvest season for each cultivar (11 Nov. and 10 Jan. for `Hamlin', 22 Mar. and 25 May for `Valencia'). Fruit detachment force was evaluated 10 days after application, whereas cumulative leaf abscission was monitored up to 60 days after application. In both cultivars, Atrimmec and DAA at 3,000 mg·L-1 induced moderate fruit loosening when applied at the earlier application date, but fruit loosening improved when applied at the later application date. In `Hamlin', both formulations caused higher leaf abscission when applied at the later date. DAA applications resulted in low leaf loss in `Valencia' regardless of application time, whereas Atrimmec caused unacceptably high leaf loss at either application date. No differences in internal fruit quality were found as a result of any abscission material treatment. The results indicate that DAA could be a promising option to induce fruit loosening in late harvested `Valencia' orange trees with minimal undesirable side effects.
Rongcai Yuan, Ulrich Hartmond, Angela Grant, and Walter J. Kender
Influence of young fruit, shoot, and root growth on response of mature `Valencia' oranges [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] to the abscission chemical CMN-pyrazole was examined in 1999 and 2000. CMN-pyrazole dramatically increased ethylene production in mature fruit and reduced the fruit detachment force (FDF), except during a period of reduced response to CMN-pyrazole in early May when spring vegetative growth, young fruit of the following year's crop, and mature fruit were all on the trees. Removal of spring flushes, which included spring vegetative shoots and leafy and leafless inflorescences, prevented any young fruit and shoot growth, but did not inhibit root growth. However, trunk girdling in combination with removal of spring flushes not only prevented growth of young fruit and shoots but also inhibited root growth. During the responsive period, there were no differences in either ethylene production or FDF of CMN-pyrazole-treated mature oranges between 1) the nonmanipulated trees and those manipulated by either 2) removal of spring flushes alone, or 3) in combination with trunk girdling. However, during the less responsive period, ethylene production in CMN-pyrazole-treated mature oranges was significantly lower while the FDF was higher in nonmanipulated trees than in trees treated by either removal of spring flushes alone, or in combination with trunk girdling. There was no difference in either fruit ethylene production or FDF between trees manipulated by (2) removal of spring flushes alone, and (3) removal of spring flushes in combination with trunk girdling regardless of CMN-pyrazole application. Shoot growth terminated at least 2 weeks before the onset of the less responsive period. Removal of young fruit increased response of mature fruit to CMN-pyrazole during the less responsive period. This suggests that hormones from rapidly growing young fruit may be responsible for the occurrence of the less responsive period. Chemical name used: 5-chloro-3-methyl-4-nitro-1H-pyrazole (CMN-pyrazole).
Oded Sagee and Carol J. Lovatt
Maximum leaf NH3-NH4 + content and activity of the de novo arginine biosynthetic pathway occurred during the 1st week after transfer of 5-year-old rooted cuttings of the `Washington' navel orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) from 8 weeks of low-temperature stress [8-hour days (500 μmol·s-1·m-2) at 15 to 18C/16-hour nights at 10 to 13C]. Both aspects declined in parallel during the subsequent 4 weeks of 12-hour days (500 μmol·s-1·m-2) at 24 C/12-hour nights at 19C, which culminated in maximum bloom. Apical flowers of inflorescences initiated in response to 8 weeks of low-temperature stress exhibited maximum tissue concentrations of NH3-NH4 + and putrescine, and maximum activity of the de novo arginine biosynthetic pathway 1 week after transfer of the trees from the low-temperature induction to the higher temperature (flower buds were 7 × 5 mm, length/width). All three criteria decreased in parallel as flowers developed through Stage V (petal fall). In contrast, spermine concentration increased 7-fold during Stage IV of flower development (flower opening). By Stage V, ovaries contained about equal concentrations of putrescine, spermidine, and spermine. The activity of the de novo tyrosine biosynthetic pathway exhibited a pattern of change independent of flower NH3-NH4 + concentration. Observed changes were not due to increased organ weight or size and persisted when the data were expressed per milligram protein. The results of this study demonstrate that leaves and floral buds undergo parallel changes in N metabolism in response to low-temperature, stress-induced flowering and provide evidence that flower NH3-NH4 + content and putrescine synthesis via argine are metabolically correlated during flower development in C. sinensis.
Potted greenhouse-grown, l-year-old `Hamlin' orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] trees on 1.5-year-old rough lemon (C. jambhiri Lush.) rootstock were temperature-conditioned for 6 consecutive weeks in a controlled-environment room to test cold-hardening ability. Holding at 15.6 ± 0.6C during 12-hr days [425 μmol·s-1·m-2 photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) at top of trees] and 4.4C during nights resulted in 100% tree survival and no leaf loss “after 4 hr of – 6.7C in a dark freeze test room. Unhardened greenhouse trees were killed to rootstock. Solute efflux (dS·m-1) from unhardened frozen leaves was > 20-fold that from frozen leaves on hardened trees and nonfrozen leaves on unhardened trees. Oxygen uptake was not significantly impaired in frozen hardened leaves. No 02 uptake was evident for frozen unhardened leaves.
Jacob B. Bade, Frederick G. Gmitter Jr., and Kim D. Bowman
Volatile oils were extracted from aqueous leaf suspensions of sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.] cultivars Hamlin, Navel, and Valencia and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) cultivars Marsh and Ray Ruby. Pressurized air was used as the sparging gas, and volatile oils were collected in a C-18 cartridge. Gas-liquid chromatography was used to separate and quantify 17 volatile components. Significant quantitative differences for individual components made it possible to distinguish sweet orange from grapefruit (four components), `Marsh' from `Ray Ruby' grapefruit (two components), `Hamlin' from `Valencia' or `Navel' orange (six components), and `Valencia' from `Navel' (three components). The simplicity and sensitivity of the procedure suggest potential use for Citrus taxonomic, genetic, and breeding research.
Robert D. Hagenmaier and Robert A. Baker
Valencia oranges [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv. Valencia] and Marsh grapefruit [Citrus paradisi Macf.] were treated with single or double layers of coating. In cases where two coatings were applied, the first coating was a moisture-barrier wax; the second was either polyethylene wax or a mixture of shellac and resin ester. The inner coating reduced weight loss, and the outer coating imparted gloss. Fruit gloss, as measured by reflectometer, decreased more rapidly during 1 week at 20C with a single glossy coating than with the same coating applied as a second layer over a wax-based first coating. For citrus fruit, using resin ester or shellac as a high-gloss second coating tended to overly restrict the exchange of O2 and CO2; however, two layers of wax did not.