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James H. Meyer

Massive changes occurring in the agricultural industries and expanding societal interests in environmental quality, food safety, competition for natural resources, along with population pressure, are making it `evident Land Grant colleges of agriculture (LGCAs) must reorganize to address a broader interface of both agriculture-related issues and issues relevant to society in general. A reduced focus on agriculture as such must be anticipated, with more emphasis directed toward life sciences, food quality, environmental concerns, and rural-urban interfaces.

Since their establishment in 1862, LGCAs have helped U.S. farmers improve production so much that the numbers of people needed in agricultural sector have plummeted, leaving the status and future of these colleges uneasy. Although the original LGCA model was appropriate for its time, the modern environment at scientific and agricultural universities calls for a new model. To achieve renewal, one must change mindset, revise the mission, provide creative, learning leaders and chart the course for evolution of revitalized institutions.

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Wayne L. Schrader, Karen L. Robb, and Valerie J. Mellano

The viability of urban interface agriculture (located near housing tracts, shopping centers, roadways, schools, and parks) depends on the ability of growers to allow their neighbors to enjoy the full benefits of their property. Growers must eliminate or minimize the noise, dust, flies, spray drift, odors, and field worker improprieties that can be associated with agricultural enterprises. An excellent way to minimize “ag/urban interface” problems is to grow a protective border planting between housing and agricultural production fields. Border plantings increase the aesthetic value of agricultural open spaces and screen out unwanted agricultural activities for those living adjacent to production areas. An ideal protective barrier planting consists of plants that 1) grow quickly and are easy to maintain; 2) provide a good physical barrier to dust, spray, and noise; 3) are inexpensive and aesthetically pleasing; 4) do not harbor insect pests that would damage crops or surrounding landscape plantings; and 5) support beneficial insects that prey on crop insect pests. Border planting sites were developed to identify plants that are adapted to border planting use and to gather information on insect populations that are supported by those plantings. Early results indicate that native plants including coyote bush, wild lilac, buckwheat, coffeeberry, yarrow, deer grass, and purple-needle grass can provide the desired physical barrier and beneficial insect support. Bio-diversity is the key to increasing populations of beneficial insects and several different native plant species have, therefore, been incorporated into the border plantings. Beneficial insect populations have been increased with appropriate border plantings.

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Chris A. Martin and Linda B. Stabler

Urban sprawl of the greater Phoenix metropolitan area is rapidly replacing agricultural and non-irrigated desert vegetation with an irrigated urban forest comprised of a mixture of woody ornamental plant materials. Our objective was to estimate and compare the carbon acquisition potential (CAP) of residential landscape plants to the dominate plant species found in adjacent agricultural and desert sites. Maximum shoot and leaf gas exchange measurements were made at monthly intervals for one year (Aug. 1998 to July 1999) using a portable photo-synthesis system. Concurrent diel gas exchange measurements were made seasonally. Gas exchange measurements were made on alfalfa at agricultural sites, blue palo verde, creosote bush and bur sage at desert sites, and on a mixture of 19 different woody ornamental tree, shrub and ground cover species at residential sites. A trapezoidal integration model was used to estimate daily CAP at each site based on maximum assimilation flux values and seasonally adjusted diel assimilation patterns. Annual landscape CAP was then calculated as the summation of estimates of daily CAP. Calculated annual CAP was highest at agricultural sites (159.0 mol/m2 per year), lowest at desert sites (35.3 mol/m2 per year), and intermediate at residential landscape sites (99.3 mol/m2 per year).

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John T. Harrington and James T. Fisher

This research was funded, in part, through grant from McIntire-Stennis and the New Mexico Agricultural Experiment Station. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed, in part, by the payment of page charges. Under postal regulations

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Prem Nath

The world produces adequate food for everyone, but unequal distribution has created a gap between the countries that produce more food than they consume and those countries with deficit production. About 815 million people suffer from hunger and malnutrition, mostly in the developing world. By 2020, the developing world is expected to face the overwhelming challenge of a 97.5% increase in population; moreover, developing countries will face serious challenges with the trend of a major shift in population from rural to urban areas, where 52% of the people will live in megacities—all asking for more food, land, and infrastructure. According to the World Health Organization, an estimated 334 million children in developing countries are malnourished. In 2020, one out of every four children in these countries will still be malnourished. It is recognized that modern agriculture must diversify production and achieve sustainable higher output to supplement food security. In order to reduce pressure on cereals as well as to improve human nutrition through the consumption of other nutritious crops, diversification in cropping patterns can provide better options. The increased production and consumption of fruits and vegetables, with their wide adaptation and providers of important nutrients (especially vitamins and minerals), offer promise for the future. Fruits and vegetables as food and diet supplements are gaining momentum in most countries. In addition, recent experimental evidence has shown the growing importance of fruits and vegetables in the prevention of noncommunicable diseases. Further, horticulture would play an important role in urban and peri-urban agriculture and development.

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Wen-fei L. Uva

The development of industrialized production and global sourcing has changed the marketing structure of the horticulture industry dramatically. The inherent disadvantaged resource base (soils and climate) and high production costs in the northeast United States make it difficult for growers to compete in commodity markets. Exploiting niche and value-added markets are important for the survival of northeast agriculture. Moreover, an emphasis on quality of life has created a movement towards sustainable agriculture. As a result of this movement, many programs have been initiated to promote locally grown products and to support agricultural-based economic development. The common objectives of the “locally grown” programs are to promote agricultural products produced within the region, support the local economy, and develop agricultural markets. Keys to success of a “locally grown” program are a vision, seed funding, a champion, and community, political leadership and technical support. Many innovative regional food and agriculture development programs have been initiated in New York State to support local farmers, revitalize the rural economy, promote local identity and pride, develop agri-tourism, and capture the urban markets. Some examples include the “Finger Lakes Culinary Bounty” initiated by local chefs, “Uncork New York” sponsored by the wine industry, and “Hudson Valley Harvest” and a pilot ethnic market project targeting New York City markets.

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Virginia I. Lohr and Caroline H. Pearson-Mims

This research protocol was approved by the WSU Human Subjects Institutional Review Board. Financial support was provided in part by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service Urban and Community Forestry Program on the recommendation of the

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Wayne A. Mackay, Steve W. George, Tim D. Davis, Michael A. Arnold, R. Daniel Lineberger, Jerry M. Parsons, Larry A. Stein, and Greg G. Grant

The Coordinated Educational and Marketing Assistance Program identifies outstanding landscape plants for Texas and provides support for the nursery industry, thereby making superior plants available to Texans. CEMAP funding comes directly from industry and from consumers through the sale of plant tags bearing the Texas Superstar logo. Additionally, the Texas Nursery and Landscape Association and Texas Department of Agriculture is conducting a Texas Superstar publicity campaign. An estimated $10 million in new plant sales have been generated during the first 10 years of this program. Because plants are chosen based on their performance under minimal input conditions, Texas SuperStars greatly reduce their impact on the urban environment.

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Martin F. Quigley

Rural-Urban Task Force, The Ohio State University, College of Food, Agriculture, and Environmental Sciences.

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Larry R. Parsons*

Florida is one of the larger producers of reclaimed water in the U.S., and use of this water has increased greatly in the past ten years. The objective of this study is to compare changes in reclaimed water use by different entities over the past several years. From 1986 to 2002, total reuse treatment capacity and flow in Florida increased by 221% and 183%, respectively. In the 1980s, reclaimed water was considered to be an urban disposal problem, and cities encouraged use of this water by giving it away for no charge. Because it was free, agricultural irrigation became the largest user of reclaimed water in the mid-1990s and is still one of the larger users. From 1992 to 2002, overall agricultural land area irrigated with reclaimed water increased by 77%. Land area of edible crops irrigated with reclaimed water increased during that period but remained relatively constant around 6070 ha after 1996. Irrigation of other crops increased to 9800 ha. Golf course irrigation increased by 212% to 20,476 ha while residential irrigation increased around 8147% to 33,373 ha during this period. Total flow to ground water recharge and industrial uses increased by 125% and 424%, respectively. While agricultural irrigation is still a large user of this water, other uses such as golf course, residential, groundwater recharge, and industrial are becoming more important. Some cities are no longer willing to provide this water to agriculture for no charge as competition from other entities increases. Agriculture may have to pay for the water, use less water, or develop other water sources.