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Christopher J. Biai, José G. Garzon, Jason A. Osborne, Jonathan R. Schultheis, Ronald J. Gehl, and Christopher C. Gunter

Transplanting of plug seedlings is the most common planting practice used for pepper production, because it improves stand establishment, shortens the field growing cycle, enhances earliness, and ultimately increases the yield and quality of

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Ronald W. Garton and Irvin E. Widders

Seedlings of processing tomato `H 2653' (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were cultured in 288-cell (< 6 cm3 volume) plug trays in a soilless growing medium. Pretransplant fertilization with nutrient solutions containing 10 or 20 mm N and 2 or 5 mm P for 10 days altered the total ammoniacal-N and P, and the soluble NO3-N and PO4-P concentrations in the shoot tissue at transplanting. Post-transplanting shoot and root growth were more rapid in late May plantings than in earlier plantings. The 20-mm N and 2-mm P pretransplant treatment caused the most rapid shoot growth following early season plantings in the field. Rapid seedling establishment after transplanting was generally not a good indicator of potential fruit yield. The 5-mm P pretransplant treatment produced higher marketable fruit yields in early plantings but not in later. Culture of seedlings under a low fertilization regime (5.4 mm N, 1.0 mm P, and 1.6 mm K) before pretransplant treatment produced as high or higher fruit yields than did seedlings from a higher regimen. Withholding fertilizer temporarily before transplanting resulted in a depletion in tissue N and P concentrations, slow post-transplanting shoot growth, and lower yields.

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Jingjing Yin, Nina L. Bassuk, Madeline W. Olberg, and Taryn L. Bauerle

Survivorship of high-quality landscape field-grown trees is a particular challenge as a result of differences in post-transplant recovery between species. During bare-root tree transplanting, a major part of the root system is severed, the tree is

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Amber N. Bates, Gerald M. Henry, and Cynthia B. McKenney

germination, hooker’s evening primrose must first be propagated in the greenhouse and transplanted into the field following maturation to the rosette stage ( Murphy et al., 1999 ). The presence of weeds in agricultural fields often increases the time and costs

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M. Lenny Wells

Establishing a pecan orchard can be an expensive and challenging endeavor. Eight years or more after transplant may be required for some cultivars to produce a harvestable yield. Rising input costs associated with fuel and fertilizer prices require

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Abby B. Griffin, Amy N. Wright, Kenneth M. Tilt, and D. Joseph Eakes

Water is considered the most limiting factor in newly transplanted container plants ( Costello and Paul, 1975 ; Scheiber et al., 2007 ), and the most common cause of death among recently transplanted container-grown plants is water stress

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Anne-Marie Hanson, J. Roger Harris, Robert Wright, Alex Niemiera, and Naraine Persaud

Newly transplanted container-grown landscape plants are reported to require very frequent irrigation. However, container nurseries in the U.S. commonly use growing substrates that are mostly bark, even though the contribution of bark-based growing substrates to water relations of transplanted root balls is unknown. Therefore, a field experiment was undertaken to determine water relations of a pine-bark substrate (container removed) within a drying mineral soil over a three week period. A range of common production container sizes—3.7 L (#1), 7.5 L (#2), 21.9 L (#7), 50.6 L (#15), and 104.5 L (#25)—was used. The fraction of substrate volume that is water [total volumetric water (TVW)] within the top and middle zones of substrate was compared to TVW at corresponding depths of adjacent mineral soil. The fraction of substrate and soil volume that is plant-available water [plant-available volumetric water (PAVW)] was calculated by subtracting the fraction of substrate or soil volume below where water is unavailable to most plants (measured with pressure plates) [plant-unavailable volumetric water (PUVW)] from each TVW measurement. The pine-bark substrate had a PUVW of 0.32 compared to a PUVW of 0.06 for soil. Top sections of substrate dried to near zero PAVW 6 days after irrigation for all containers. Larger container sizes maintained higher PAVW in middle sections than smaller container sizes, and PAVW was always higher in the adjacent soil than in the embedded substrate. Overall, very little PAVW is held by the embedded pine-bark growing substrate, suggesting the need for container substrates with greater water retention once transplanted to mineral soils.

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Valérie Gravel, Martine Dorais, and Claudine Ménard

system as a result of high investment, high-quality transplants are required. Greenhouse transplants should have a good developmental balance between shoot and roots, high water use efficiency, and a high content of reserves that can be used in the first

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Orville C. Baldos, Joseph DeFrank, and Glenn Sakamoto

: 1) tolerance of newly transplanted plugs to pre-emergence herbicides and 2) tolerance of established plants to postemergence herbicides. The Kahoolawe seashore dropseed germplasm (no. 9079745) used for both studies was obtained from the Natural

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Yuqi Li and Neil S. Mattson

no reports on the growth of petunia transplants in response to different commercially available substrates and their interaction with fertilizer regime. The objective of this study was to evaluate petunia growth and flowering in response to different