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Neil C. Bell, Bernadine C. Strik, and Lloyd W. Martin

Primocanes of `Marion' trailing blackberry plants were suppressed by cutting them off at ground level in either late April, May, June, or July 1991 and 1992. An unsuppressed control was included in which primocanes were not cut. A single cane was removed from each replication of the five primocane suppression dates at monthly intervals from mid-November to mid-February 1991-92, and from mid-November to mid-January 1992-93. One-node samples were exposed to controlled freezing at temperatures of 4, -6, -9, -12, -15, and -18C in November through February. In December and January, the-6 temperature was replaced with-21C. After 5 days at room temperature following freezing, growing point, budbase, vascular, and pith tissues were evaluated for tissue browning on a 1 to 5 scale. The LT50 developed for each suppression date was compared to the control. July-suppressed plants were generally hardiest for all tissues. June-suppressed plants were somewhat less hardy than July-suppressed plants, while April-, May- and unsuppressed plants were comparable and least hardy. Cane tissues of July-suppressed and unsuppressed plants had a higher level of soluble carbohydrates than other suppression dates.

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Jessica M. Cortell and Bernadine C. Strik

In Spring 1993 and 1994, mature trailing `Marion' blackberry (Rubus L. subgenus Rubus Watson) plants were pruned to 0, 4, 8, and 12 floricanes. In 1994, yield per cane was higher for plants with 4 floricanes compared to plants with 8 or 12 floricanes. In Summer 1993, there was a trend for lower primocane dry mass with a higher floricane number and a significant reduction in primocane branch dry mass with an increase in floricane number. Total plant, fruit, floricane, and lateral dry mass increased linearly with floricane number. Results were similar for floricane components in Summer 1994; however, there were no treatment effects on primocane or branch dry mass and there was a significant linear increase in crown dry mass with floricane number. By Winter 1994-95, there were no treatment effects on primocane or crown dry mass. Plants without floricanes produced more primocanes per plant than plants with floricanes in 1993 but not in 1994. Plants without floricanes produced primocanes that had a significantly lower percent budbreak the following year (1994) than plants with floricanes. Primocanes produced by plants without floricanes had more nodes per branch and a greater average branch cane length than those from plants with floricanes the previous season. The number of nodes per primocane tended to decrease with an increase in floricane number per plant in 1994 and 1995. There was no significant effect of floricane number per plant the previous season on fruit per lateral, fruit mass, or yield per plant the following season in either treatment year (1993 + 1994). However, in 1994, plants without floricanes the previous year had the lowest yield per cane. Topping primocanes at 30 cm in 1993 and 1994 had few significant effects on yield components the following season. Thus, `Marion' blackberry can compensate for reduced fruiting cane number through an increased percent budbreak on remaining canes. While there were differences in primocane dry mass among treatments after harvest in 1993, there were no differences by mid-winter in either 1993 or 1994. Although plants grown without floricanes in 1993 had more primocanes, these canes had a lower percent budbreak the following season. Consequently, in this study we did not see increased yield in plants grown without floricanes the previous season. This was perhaps because primocanes were not trained as they grew, a practice that improves light exposure to the canes and may increase flower bud initiation.

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Jessica M. Cortell and Bernadine C. Strik

In Spring 1993 and 1994, mature trailing `Marion' blackberries (Rubus L. subgenus Rubus Watson) were pruned to 0, 4, 8, and 12 floricanes/plant. An additional treatment of 0 floricanes with early (30 cm) primocane topping and pruning was included. Primocane length was measured from emergence in April until growth cessation at the end of October on individual canes and for the whole plant. In January 1994 and 1995, cane cold hardiness was evaluated by controlled freezing. In 1993, plants without floricanes produced more primocanes and branches with an increased total length at the end of the season than plants with floricanes. However, there were no significant differences in primocane length among treatments in 1994. In all treatments, the absolute growth rate (AGR), on a length basis, of primocanes occurred in flushes of rapid growth followed by slower growth throughout the season. Plants without floricanes had a significantly greater AGR than plants with floricanes on five dates in 1993. In 1994, there was no effect of floricane number per plant on AGR of primocanes over the season and the growth peaks were not as distinct. When comparing primocane elongation rate at three phenological stages in 1993, plants with no floricanes had a significantly higher total primocane growth per day during fruit production and from harvest to length cessation. The following year, plants with no floricanes had the highest rate of growth before bloom and a trend toward greater growth during fruit production. After fruit production, there were no differences in AGR between the treatments. Plants with floricanes produced a second flush of primocanes, while plants with no floricanes produced only one flush of primocanes. Primocane length of the first flush (averaged for 4-, 8-, and 12-floricane plants) was significantly different from the second flush at all dates during the season except for the final end of season measurement date. Primocanes pruned at 30 cm did not produce significantly more branches than unpruned primocanes on plants without floricanes. Plants without floricanes produced primocanes that were significantly more cold hardy (lower LT50) in 1994 and 1995 than plants with floricanes.

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Chad E. Finn, Brian M. Yorgey, Bernadine C. Strik, and Robert R. Martin

This research was partially funded by the Oregon Raspberry and Blackberry Commission and the Northwest Center for Small Fruit Research. We gratefully acknowledge the assistance of Mary Peterson, Connie Pace, and Gloria Murray in 'Nightfall

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Chad E. Finn, Brian M. Yorgey, Bernadine C. Strik, Robert R. Martin, and Chaim Kempler

This research was partially funded by the Oregon Raspberry and Blackberry Commission and the Northwest Center for Small Fruit Research. We gratefully acknowledge the assistance of Mary Peterson, Connie Pace, and Gloria Murray in 'Obsidian

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Chad E. Finn, Brian M. Yorgey, Bernadine C. Strik, and Robert R. Martin

This research was partially funded by the Oregon Raspberry and Blackberry Commission and the Northwest Center for Small Fruit Research. We gratefully acknowledge the assistance of Mary Peterson, Connie Pace, and Gloria Murray in 'Metolius

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Chad E. Finn, Francis J. Lawrence, Bernadine C. Strik, Brian Yorgey, and Joe DeFrancesco

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Javier Fernandez-Salvador, Bernadine C. Strik, Yanyun Zhao, and Chad E. Finn

effective weed management strategy in plantings of trailing and semierect blackberry plants that do not produce primocanes from root buds ( Fernandez-Salvador et al., 2015b ; Harkins et al., 2013 ; Makus, 2011 ). Growers who focus on fresh market

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Chad E. Finn, Brian M. Yorgey, Bernadine C. Strik, Harvey K. Hall, Robert R. Martin, and Michael Qian

This research was partially funded by the Oregon Raspberry and Blackberry Commission and the Northwest Center for Small Fruit Research. We gratefully acknowledge the assistance of Mary Peterson, Connie Pace, and Gloria Murray in 'Black

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Chad E. Finn, Brian M. Yorgey, Bernadine C. Strik, Robert R. Martin, and Michael Qian

This research was partially funded by the Oregon Raspberry and Blackberry Commission and the Northwest Center for Small Fruit Research. We gratefully acknowledge the assistance of Mary Peterson, Connie Pace, and Gloria Murray in 'Black Pearl