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Hazel Y. Wetzstein, Weiguang Yi, Justin A. Porter, and Nadav Ravid

terminal flower in the flower cluster at the open petal stage. ( D ) Lateral flowers within a flower cluster have opened; the terminal flower is past bloom, petals have abscised, and the ovary has enlarged. Fig. 2. Pomegranate flower characteristics

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Barbara Gilmore, Nahla Bassil, April Nyberg, Brian Knaus, Don Smith, Danny L. Barney, and Kim Hummer

Peonies, family Paeoniaceae, were first recognized as a medicinal plant in Asia several thousand years ago ( Hsu et al., 1986 ). In the late 1700s, peonies were imported from Asia and Europe into North America for use as a garden flower ( Harding

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ChihCheng T. Chao and Robert R. Krueger

consists of many unbranched rachillae, known as “strands,” arranged in spirals on the rachis. Both female and male flowers usually have three sepals and three petals ( Fig. 2 ). Male flowers are usually waxy white and female flowers usually are yellowish

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Lyn A. Gettys

native is undeniably beautiful; it bears cordate leaves (often with a deep red margin) and attractive white five-petal flowers. Crested floatingheart can grow in water as deep as 15 ft and has long petioles that attach the leaves to the crown of the plant

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Xiao-Juan Wei, Jinlin Ma, Kai-Xiang Li, Xiao-Jing Liang, and Haiying Liang

Commonly referred to as cha-hua in Chinese, camellia flowers have been cultivated and treasured in the Orient for thousands of years and now are grown throughout the world in botanical gardens and home greenhouses ( Ming, 2000 ; Zhu et al., 2007

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Tina M. Waliczek, Dave Byrne, and Don Holeman

-flower, with thousands of cultivars available ( Debener and Byrne, 2014 ). Roses are grown in greenhouses for the florist industry to produce both cut flowers and potted specimens ( Pemberton et al., 2003 ; Short and Roberts, 1991 ). Garden, landscape, or

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Xiao-Juan Wei, Xiao-Jing Liang, Jin-Lin Ma, Kai-Xiang Li, and Haiying Liang

to as cha-hua in Chinese ( Ming, 2000 ; Zhu et al., 2007 ). According to Cothran (2004) , Chinese camellias made their way to the Western world in the 18th century after being cultivated and treasured in the Orient for thousands of years

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William B. Miller, Neil S. Mattson, Xiaorong Xie, Danghui Xu, Christopher J. Currey, Kasey L. Clemens, Roberto G. Lopez, Michael Olrich, and Erik S. Runkle

initiation, senescence of mature flower buds, wilting of petals, or failure of the bud to open ( Reid, 1987 ). One of the drawbacks of ethephon drenches in bedding plant production is a delay in flowering. However, consideration must also be given to the

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Yan Hong and SiLan Dai

throughput and efficiency make it an important method for gene expression studies ( Lee et al., 2010 ). Through the transcriptome approach, sequence information for thousands of genes can be analyzed simultaneously, quickly, and accurately. Moreover, based on

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Phu-Long Pham, Ying-Xue Li, He-Rong Guo, Rui-Zhen Zeng, Li Xie, Zhi-Sheng Zhang, Jianjun Chen, Qing-Lian Su, and Qing Xia

., 2015 ). In China, Dendrobium , commonly known as “Shi Hu,” has been used as traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years ( Cheng et al., 2019 ). More than 78 species of Dendrobium are native to China, and 50 of them have medicinal value ( Chen