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Huan Xiong, He Sun, Feng Zou, Xiaoming Fan, Genhua Niu, and Deyi Yuan

4 weeks from nodal explants. ( H–K ) Microshoot multiplication after 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks from apical explants. ( L ) Shoot elongation and strengthening. ( M, N ) Rooting. ( O ) Rooted plantlets transferred to climate chamber after 4 weeks. ( P, Q

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Szu-Chin Peng, Iou-Zen Chen, and Cheng-Yung Cheng

Taiwanese wild grape is a perennial herb that is traditionally used in medical therapy in eastern Asia. Recently, growers tried to cultivate taiwanese wild grape artificially, but they had some problems such as low rooting percentage in clonal

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Arnon Dag, Ran Erel, Alon Ben-Gal, Isaac Zipori, and Uri Yermiyahu

producing 1.5 million tons of table olives and 16 million ton of olives that are processed into 2.56 million tons of oil ( Vossen, 2007 ). Olives are commonly propagated by leafy cuttings under mist ( Peixe et al., 2007 ). Factors that may affect rooting

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Brandon M. Miller and William R. Graves

, protuberant taproots ( Thompson and Grauke, 1991 ). The characteristic taproot and minimal root branching of the hickories are often associated by nursery growers with the slow initial development of seedlings and a resistance to successful transplanting. For

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Qingrong Sun, Meijuan Sun, Hongyan Sun, Richard L. Bell, Linguang Li, Wei Zhang, and Jihan Tao

genetic modification by transformation, and also is a basis for the use of somaclonal variation by in vitro induced mutation. Efficient in vitro rooting of shoots is a critical step in rapid micropropagation of rootstocks. Losses at this step will have

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Seong Min Woo and Hazel Y. Wetzstein

locations ( Godt and Hamrick, 1999 ; Thompson and Spira, 1991 ). Some plants show multiple trunks owing to vegetative root sprouting after injury such as cutting or fire indicating extensive clonal growth occurs. However, the biological cycle and life

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Ajay Nair and Donglin Zhang

propagation such as seed scarification, cutting type, rooting hormone, rooting medium, nutrition, cold acclimation, and micropropagation have been specifically targeted and show promising results. Stewartia has been a plant of interest not only to the

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D. Michael Glenn

114 WORKSHOP 18 Advanced Root and Rhizosphere Analysis Systems

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Rochelle R. Beasley and Paula M. Pijut

endangered tree species. Adventitious shoot regeneration and rooting is a prerequisite for use in genetic modification technology. Adventitious shoot regeneration has been reported for common or European ash ( F . excelsior ) ( Hammatt, 1996 ; Mockeliunaite

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Ze Li, Xiaofeng Tan, Zhiming Liu, Qing Lin, Lin Zhang, Jun Yuan, Yanling Zeng, and Lingli Wu

typically difficult for rooting to occur from in vitro woody shoots, as shown by results of previous studies on C. oleifera ( Li et al., 2014 ; Lü et al., 2013 ; Zhang et al., 2005 ). Therefore, it is essential to develop an efficient protocol for C