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R. Karina Gallardo, Parichat Klingthong, Qi Zhang, James Polashock, Amaya Atucha, Juan Zalapa, Cesar Rodriguez-Saona, Nicholi Vorsa, and Massimo Iorizzo

producers ( Nolte, 2015 ; Serres, 2017 ; USDA-AMS, 1997 , 2016 ). Currently, the demand for SDC is higher than for juice concentrate, with price premiums paid for the SDC. Meanwhile, the price for cranberries used for juice concentrate has decreased due

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Xavier Vallverdu, Joan Girona, Gemma Echeverria, Jordi Marsal, M. Hossein Behboudian, and Gerardo Lopez

Stage II because fruit growers may expect to receive a premium price for their high-quality fruit. Similar research in other cultivars is needed to confirm the suitability of DI during Stage II as a technique for improving peach fruit quality. Literature

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Mary A. Rogers and Annette L. Wszelaki

became severe. Organically grown tomato yields may be lower than those grown conventionally; however, these differences tend to equalize over the long term ( Poudel et al., 2002 ). Additionally, price premiums for organically grown tomatoes may offset the

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Jayson K. Harper and George M. Greene II

This study quantifies the discounts and premiums associated with various quality factors for processing apples (Malus domestica Borkh.). Discounts and premiums were estimated using a hedonic price model and quality data from a total of 137 samples representing three processing apple cultivars (45 `York Imperial', 43 `Rome Beauty', and 49 `Golden Delicious'). Price discounts in the sample were statistically significant for fruit size, bruising, bitter pit, decay, misshapen apples, and internal breakdown. Commonly cited defects, such as insect damage and apple scab, did not cause significant price discounts.

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Gary Thompson

Sales of organic foods at retail have grown at rates from 20% to 35% in many countries throughout Europe, Asia, and the Americas during the 1990s. Yet market shares of organic foods remain quite small, less than 5%of retail value in all countries throughout the world. As mainstream retail outlets have begun to carry and promote organic foods, lack of availability of organic foods has become less of an impediment to consumer demand. The major impediment to continued growth in organic food demand is high price premiums for organic foods over conventional food counterparts. Some of the highest price premiums at retail are displayed by fresh and frozen vegetables and fruit; premiums as high as 250% for frozen green peas in the United States have been recorded. Indirect evidence in the form willingness-to-pay studies and retail pricing experiments indicate that the majority of consumers will not pay such high price premiums for organic fruit and vegetables. Small market shares at retail tend to corroborate consumers' willingness to pay such high prices. How much prices of organic fruit and vegetables would have to be reduced relative to conventional produce in order to increase market shares of organic produce is not clear.

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Gary Thompson

Sales of organic foods at retail have grown at rates from 20 to 35% in many countries throughout Europe, Asia, and the Americas during the 1990s. Yet market shares of organic foods remain quite small, less than 3% of retail value in all countries throughout the world. As mainstream retail outlets have begun to carry and promote organic foods, lack of availability of organic foods has become less of an impediment to consumer demand. The major impediment to continued growth in organic food demand is high price premiums for organic foods over conventional food counterparts. Some of the highest price premiums at retail are displayed by fresh and frozen vegetables and fruit: premiums as high as 250% for frozen green peas (Pisum sativum L.) in the United States have been recorded. Indirect evidence in the form of willingness-to-pay studies and retail pricing experiments indicate that the majority of consumers will not pay such high price premiums for organic fruit and vegetables. Small market shares at retail tend to corroborate consumers' unwillingness to pay such high prices. How much prices of organic fruit and vegetables would have to be reduced relative to conventional produce in order to increase market shares of organic produce is not clear.

Open access

Marcia R. Ostrom, David S. Conner, Heleene Tambet, Katherine Selting Smith, J. Robert Sirrine, Philip H. Howard, and Michelle Miller

locally, but many barriers around pricing and market access prevent this ( Becot et al., 2016 ). We discuss survey data collected from orchardists from four U.S. states (Michigan, Vermont, Washington, and Wisconsin) with significant apple and cider

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Robin G. Brumfield

Since World War II, U.S. agriculture has reduced production costs by substituting petrochemicals for labor, often resulting in overuse of agricultural chemicals. Among the adverse results of chemical overuse are increases in certain pests, groundwater and surface water contamination, and surface water run-off. There is a growing perception that consumers bear the risk of pesticide use and farmers reap the profits. For farmers, the short-term risk of losing a crop that is already planted may take precedence over the long-term risks of such things as the pests developing resistance to pesticide, environmental damage, and applicator health risks. Alternative farming programs such as ICM and organic farming allow farmers to reconcile short-term risks and long-term benefits. Before farmers adopt an alternative system, they must be convinced that economic benefits from the alternative farming program surpass the costs incurred. Few studies have compared the cost of producing organic produce vs. using conventional production systems. One study found that net returns were slightly higher in ICM and organic systems that conventional ones. This is because of lower costs when using ICM systems and price premiums for organic crops. These results suggest that there may not be any trade-off between economic efficiency and environmentally friendly farming practices. If the society desires better environmental quality, it will be ready to pay premium price for the organic or ICM-grown vegetables. In a free-market system, farmers will use the market signals in the form of price, and they will produce accordingly.

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Susan D. Schoneweis and Paul E. Read

Chimeral African violets do not come true when propagated from leaf cuttings in conventional or micropropagation systems. Chimeral plants are normally propagated by rooting suckers from mother plants. Premium prices are charged for chimeral plants due to the low numbers produced.

Reports in the African violet Society Magazine indicate that chimeral plants can be started by rooting flower peduncles. However, only one or two new plants are generated from each peduncle.

Peduncle tissue was grown in vitro to produce large numbers of plants from chimeral African violets. Ratios of plants with true-to-type vs. off-type flowers varied by cultivar and tissue used. The potential use of this technology will be discussed.

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Benjamin L. Campbell, Robert G. Nelson, Robert C. Ebel, and William A. Dozier

For most grocery stores, external quality standards require that premium mandarins be orange, unblemished, and large. Thus, for consumers to differentiate among the premium mandarins on any dimension other than price, additional positioning attributes must be evaluated. This study considered consumer preferences for price ($2.18/kg, $4.39/kg, or $15.41/kg), packaging (1.36 kg of loose fruit, 1.36-kg bag, 2.27-kg box, or 0.23-kg clamshell with peeled fruit sections), type of mandarin (clementine, satsuma, tangerine), shelf life from the day of purchase (3, 14, or 31 days), and vitamin C content (with or without a label stating high in vitamin C). A conjoint survey was conducted in four grocery stores located in Birmingham and Montgomery, Ala. In total, 289 respondents used a 7-point intention-to-buy scale to rate photographs of 16 product profiles. Six market segments were identified, based on maximal similarity of preferences within each segment and maximal differences between segments. A simulation was conducted of the effect that an introduction of peeled-and-sectioned satsumas would have on the market share and gross revenue of other mandarins. This product showed great potential, but should be offered in a product mix that includes the loose form as well. Labeling for vitamin C was preferred by all segments, but did not contribute much to the intention-to-buy rating. Awareness and recognition of satsumas needs to be addressed in promotional campaigns. The longest shelf life was the first choice of almost half the respondents.