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Brad G. Howlett, Samantha F.J. Read, Maryam Alavi, Brian T. Cutting, Warrick R. Nelson, Robert M. Goodwin, Sarah Cross, Trevor G. Thorp, and David E. Pattemore

Macadamia is partially self-incompatible ( Sedgley, 1983 ), although self-pollinated nut set is known to occur in at least some cultivars ( Meyers, 1997 ; Vithanage et al., 2002 ; Wallace et al., 1996 ). Cross-pollination has been considered

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Chyun-Chien Liang, Tzu-Yao Wei, and Der-Ming Yeh

their attractive multicolored foliage, even when the plants are not flowering. Therefore, they have been used in many areas for landscaping and indoor decorations. However, the cultivars that are of interest are hybrids. Information regarding pollination

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Melissa Broussard, Sujaya Rao, William P. Stephen, and Linda White

viable grains reach the stigma, fruits are small, deformed, or altogether absent ( Cane and Schiffhauer, 2003 ). As a result of limited self-compatibility, for optimal fruit set, cranberry requires outcrossing by insect pollinators ( Sarracino and Vorsa

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Hazel Y. Wetzstein and S. Edward Law

78 ORAL SESSION 15 (Abstr. 489-494) Cross-commodity: Flowering/Pollination

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Virginia Pinillos and Julián Cuevas

In Spain, olive has been cultivated since antiquity in large, supposedly monovarietal masses without pollination design and without farmers noticing fruit set deficiencies. However, accumulated evidence from carefully designed experiments shows that

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Benjamin L. Campbell and William Steele

Pollinators play an integral part in the reproductive process of 75% to 95% of all flowering plants ( Ollerton et al., 2011 ; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2019a ), but the world has seen a substantial reduction in the abundance of pollinators

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Heather Kalaman, Gary W. Knox, Sandra B. Wilson, and Wendy Wilber

The significant contributions made by pollinating insects to the prosperity and health of our many ecosystems are well known among both the public and the scientific community ( Novacek, 2008 ; Smith, 2016 ). Not only are the pollination services

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Khalil R. Jahed and Peter M. Hirst

Pollination is an essential process for fruit set, fruit growth, fruit quality, and seed set of most apple cultivars. The first step of successful apple pollination is the transfer of pollen to the stigmatic surface (typically vectored by bees

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Hayk Khachatryan and Alicia Rihn

Insect pollinator services are important to the global economy and environment. World pollinator services have been valued at €153 billion per year ($171 billion USD; Gallai et al., 2009 ) and pollinate ≈70% of global food crops ( Klein et al

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Bethany A. Harris, S. Kristine Braman, and Svoboda V. Pennisi

As decomposers, predators, and pollinators, insects play a vital role in ecosystem health, e.g., decomposers help aerate the soil, turning more soil than earthworms, and increasing soil rainwater retention and tillage ( Pimentel, 2002 ). Predatory