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Hongli Wei, Chao Gao, Jie Qiu, Li Long, Biao Wang, Lu Yang, and Yang Hu

floral organs are prone to frostbite, which seriously hinders pollen germination, pollination, and fertilization. Plant flowering biology is the basis of plant reproduction. Conducting studies on flowering biological characteristics is of great

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Cecilia E. McGregor and Vickie Waters

2009 ( U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2011 ). The seedless fruit is produced on triploid plants, but because pollination and fertilization are required for fruit set, and these plants produce negligible amounts of viable pollen, diploid pollen sources

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Dongmei Wei, Chao Gao, and Deyi Yuan

, 1967 ). In flowering plants, calcium plays crucial roles in regulating sexual reproduction processes such as pollen germination, pollen tube growth ( Cardenas et al., 2008 ; Franklin-Tong, 1999 ; Hepler, 1997 ; Heslop-Harrison, 1987 ; Kwack, 1967

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M.R. Pooler and R. Scorza

Research Service (USDA-ARS), Byron, Ga., for cooperative use of peach trees; Peter Seferian, USDA-ARS, Beltsville, Md., for assistance with pollen irradiation; and Lenard Gilreath, USDA-ARS, Kearneysville, W.V., for assistance with pollinations. The cost of

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Keith Yoder, Rongcai Yuan, Leon Combs, Ross Byers, Jim McFerson, and Tory Schmidt

and fertilization through damaging the anthers, stigma, and style of flowers or inhibiting pollen tube growth in the style of flowers and are applied when some, but not all, flowers are fertilized ( Fallahi and Willemsen, 2002 ; Greene, 2002

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Natalia R. Dolce, Ricardo D. Medina, Luis A. Mroginski, and Hebe Y. Rey

Pollen storage is of great importance for plant breeding and production as a means of overcoming asynchrony in flowering, location, and availability of plants for crosses. Likewise, it is an efficient means for preservation of the haploid gene pool

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Chao Gao, Deyi Yuan, Ya Yang, Bifang Wang, Dongming Liu, and Feng Zou

The compatible fertilization of angiosperms is initiated through the hydration of the pollen at the stigma and the germination of the pollen tube. After entering the interpapillar cell space, the tube grows in the stylar canal or transmitting tissue

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Jiefang Wu, Danwen Fu, Jiezhen Chen, Changhe Cai, Qian Yan, and Liangxi Ou

or fail to set and carry a reasonable crop ( Menzel, 2001 ). Aizen and Harder (2007) considered pollen limitation as the combined effect of quantity and quality limitation, indicating that quantity limitation is less frequent than was inferred from

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Raphael A. Stern and Shmuel Gazit

The lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) has two types of pollen-releasing flowers—M1 and M2. We compared the morphology and viability of these two pollen types, mainly for the two commercial cultivars in Israel: `Mauritius' and `Floridian'. Observation by scanning electron microscope did not reveal any consistent morphological differences between the two pollen types. However, M2 pollen was found to have a consistent and significant advantage over M1 pollen in in vitro germination tests. M2 pollen from `Mauritius', `Floridian', `No Mai Chee', `Wai Chee', and `Early Large Red' had a much higher germination rate at 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 °C than M1 pollen from those same cultivars. The optimal incubation temperature for in vitro pollen germination was 30 °C for M2 pollen of all five cultivars studied; adequate germination rates were also found at 35 and 25 °C. The optimal temperature for M1 pollen germination was also 30 °C for `Mauritius' and `No Mai Chee', but was not well defined for the other three cultivars. No pronounced advantage of M2 pollen-tube growth could be discerned 48 h after hand pollination. However, final fruit set was consistently and significantly higher after hand pollination with M2 pollen, relative to M1 pollen. Hot (32/27 °C) and warm (27/22 °C) regimes during flower development had a pronounced detrimental effect on pollen viability compared to a cool (22/17 °C) regime. `Floridian' was much more susceptible than `Mauritius' in this respect.

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L.X. Zhang, W.C. Chang, Y.J. Wei, L. Liu, and Y.P. Wang

Cryopreservation of pollen from two ginseng species —Panax ginseng L. and P. quinquefolium L.—was studied. Freezing anthers that served as pollen carriers to –40C before liquid N storage affected pollen viability little after liquid N storage. Anther moisture content affected pollen viability significantly when stored in liquid N. The ideal anther moisture content to carry pollen for liquid N storage was 32% to 26% for P. ginseng and 27% to 17% for P. quinquefolium. Viability of pollen from P. quinquefolium anthers with 25.3% moisture content changed little after 11 months of liquid N storage.