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Liuhui Yang, Jianjun Zhang, Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva, and Xiaonan Yu

and species or cultivars of tree peony (section Moutan ) served as the male parent ( Qin, 2004 ; Yang and Yu, 2016 ). Herbaceous peonies have rich germplasm diversity in terms of external morphology and chromosome ploidy ( Hao et al., 2016 ; Ji et

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David M. Czarnecki II, Amanda J. Hershberger, Carol D. Robacker, David G. Clark, and Zhanao Deng

Nalini, 1972 ), and the cause(s) of such in vitro germination failures remain to be identified. Thus, pollen stainability has been the primary parameter used in lantana pollen viability assessment. This study was conducted to determine the ploidy levels

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Jonathan D. Mahoney, Thao M. Hau, Bryan A. Connolly, and Mark H. Brand

to be a more cost-effective way of producing a large number of markers ( Mueller and Wolfenbarger, 1999 ). In this study, we use AFLP, in conjunction with ploidy analysis and plant phenotype, to elucidate the reproductive mechanisms of Aronia

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Tingting Zhao, Dawei Li, Lulu Li, Fei Han, Xiaoli Liu, Peng Zhang, Meiyan Chen, and Caihong Zhong

release or bloom delay techniques ( Naor et al., 2003 ). Kiwifruit ( Actinidia ) is a functionally dioecious liana with variable ploidy levels (e.g., diploid, tetraploid, and hexaploid) ( Huang et al., 2000 ; Li et al., 2010 ). Most current kiwifruit

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Karen Harris-Shultz, Melanie Harrison, Phillip A. Wadl, Robert N. Trigiano, and Timothy Rinehart

successfully used in warm-season grasses ( Harris-Shultz et al., 2013 ; Mulkey et al., 2013 ). With the interest in little bluestem, and the horticultural planting of a few recommended cultivars, we aimed to determine ploidy level and to create SSR markers to

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Carlee Steppe, Sandra B. Wilson, Zhanao Deng, Keri Druffel, and Gary W. Knox

lantana in Australia also differed dramatically in pollen viability and ploidy level/chromosome number. The weedy form had ≈65% pollen stainability and was a tetraploid with 2 n = 4 x = 48 chromosomes, whereas the garden form had extremely low pollen

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Ryan N. Contreras and Kimberly Shearer

, depending on taxonomic treatment ( Li, 2011 ; Suh et al., 2000 ; Zhang et al., 2010 ). Although many teams are working on clarifying taxonomy, relatively little has been reported on genome size and ploidy level within the genus. Three original papers

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Peter J. Zale and Pablo Jourdan

Phlox (Polemoniaceae) is a phenotypically diverse genus with substantial interpopulation differentiation for numerous morphological characters and ploidy; it includes ≈65 species with centers of diversity in the eastern and western United States

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Qingling Li, Yuesheng Yang, and Hong Wu

breeding work, ploidy manipulation is a valuable tool for improving crop quality or production and polyploids promote evolution history significantly ( Adams and Wendel, 2005 ; Leitch and Bennett, 1997 ; Otto and Whitton, 2000 ). Polyploidization often

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Jason D. Lattier and Ryan N. Contreras

as Cornus ( Shearer and Ranney, 2013 ) and Magnolia ( Parris et al., 2010 ). When combining genome sizes with their corresponding chromosome counts, genome size data can be used to discover ploidy variation among related taxa ( Contreras et al