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Anil P. Ranwala, Garry Legnani, Mary Reitmeier, Barbara B. Stewart, and William B. Miller

, and Valent USA for financial aid and materials support, and to the greenhouse staff of the Kenneth Post Laboratory of Cornell University for plant care.

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T.J. Blom, M.J. Tsujita, and G.L. Roberts

Potted bulbs of Lilium longiflorum Thunb. `Ace' and `Nellie White' and Lilium (Asiatic hybrid) `Enchantment' were grown in a greenhouse under ambient photoperiod (APP), 8-h photoperiod by removing twilight from ambient by blackout cloth (8PP), or 8PP extended with 1 hour of low-intensity far-red radiation (9PP). Height of `Ace', `Nellie White', and `Enchantment' increased by 24%, 18%, and 12%, respectively, under APP and by 118%, 100%, and 44%, respectively, under 9PP compared to 8PP. In a second experiment, the effects of reduced irradiance (0%, 25%, 50%, and 75% shade) were determined on the same cultivars grown under APP or 8PP. The effects of APP on height were similar in magnitude for `Ace' and `Nellie White' but were insignificant for `Enchantment' compared to 8PP. Shading increased height linearly for all cultivars. The regression was greater under APP (2.8 mm/percent shade) than under 8PP (1.8 mm/percent shade) for `Ace' and `Nellie White' combined. Plant height of `Enchantment' was less affected by reduced irradiance. For all cultivars, APP or 9PP produced higher stem dry weight compared to 8PP. Shading decreased leaf and bulb dry weight of the Easter lily cultivars.

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Anil P. Ranwala and William B. Miller

. Gloeckner Foundation. Additional support was provided by the Clemson Univ. Ornamental Horticulture Competitive Grants Program. We gratefully acknowledge plant donations from Van Wingerden International, Asheville, N.C., and chemical donations from Abbott

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Soon O. Park, Dermot P. Coyne, James R. Steadman, Paul W. Skroch, and Geunhwa Jung

The objective was to detect molecular markers associated with QTL for partial physiological resistance (PPR) to two white mold (WM) isolates, partial field resistance (PFR), plant architecture (PA), and plant height (PH) in a genetic linkage map constructed using recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from the cross `PC-50' (resistant to WM) × XAN-159 (susceptible to WM). Significant correlations (+0.39 and +0.47) were noted between the WM reactions in the greenhouse and field. A significant but negative correlation (–0.33) was observed between the WM reaction and PH in the field. Six QTL affecting PPR to isolate 152 were found on LGs 4, 5, 7, and 8. Six QTL affecting PPR to isolate 279 were found on LGs 2, 3, 4, 7, and 8. Five QTL for PFR were observed on LGs 2, 5, 7, 8, and 11. Two QTL affecting PA were detected on LGs 7 and 8. Two QTL affecting PH were identified on LGs 7 and 8. On one end of LG 8 marker H19.1250 was significant for PPR to both isolates. On the other end of LG 8 the region closely linked to the C locus was significantly associated with PPR to both isolates, PFR, PA and PH. Marker J09.950 on LG 7 was significantly associated with PPR to both isolates, PFR, PH and seed weight. Marker J01.2000 on LG 2 was the most significant locus for both PPR to the isolate 279 and PFR. QTL on LG 5 were found for PPR to the isolate 152 and PFR. Overall, four of the five QTL affecting PFR were also found for PPR to one or both isolates.

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T.J. Gianfagna, R.H. Merritt, and J.D. Willmott

Aquilegia cultivars `Songbird Bluebird', `Songbird Robin', `Dove Improved', `Colorado Violet/White' and five cultivars from new experimental genetic lines (`Red and White', `Rose and White #1', `Rose and White #2', `Scarlet and Yellow' and `White') will flower without vernalization, but little is known of their response to light or plant growth regulators. Plants were started from seed on 5 Jan. 1999 and grown in either natural light or 33% shade, and treated with gibberellins (GA4/7) at the seven-leaf stage. Flowering time, number of flowers/plant, and plant height were evaluated through 31 May 1999. All five cultivars from the new genetic lines bloomed during the study. `White', grown in shade and treated with GA4/7, bloomed 2 weeks earlier (115 days) than untreated plants grown in natural light (130 days). `Songbird Robin', treated with GA4/7, bloomed in 146 days, and was the only other cultivar to bloom. Flower numbers were greater in natural light than in 33% shade. GA4/7 increased flowering for four of five cultivars, in the new genetic lines, grown in natural light. In shade, GA4/7 increased flowering for three of five cultivars. Height response to GA4/7 was significant in both natural light and 33% shade. Four of the five cultivars in the new genetic lines were taller when treated. All five of these cultivars were taller when grown in natural light verses 33% shade. `White' and both `Rose and White' cultivars were consistently taller, bloomed earlier and were more floriferous when treated with GA4/7.

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Michael A. Schnelle, B. Dean McCraw, and Timothy J. Schmoll

Blakely, Creekside Plants, Oologah, Okla., for their ingenuity and contribution of time, labor, and greenhouse space.

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George J. Wulster and Thomas M. Ombrello

Growth and flowering of Ixia hybrids as potted plants can be controlled environmentally by cool preplant storage of corms, regulation of greenhouse forcing temperatures, and application of a growth retardant. Paclobutrazol applied as a preplant corm soak, a postemergent drench, or a postemergent spray in combination with a 2- to 4-week preplant storage of corms at 7 °C, and an 18 °C day/10 °C night forcing temperature produced attractive and marketable plants. Chemical name used: β-[(4-chlorophenyl)methyl]-α-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-ethanol (paclobutrazol, Bonzi®).

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Richard P. Marini, Donald S. Sowers, and Michele Choma Marini

`Sweet Sue' peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) trees were subjected to a factorial arrangement of treatments. At planting, trees were headed at 10 or 70 cm above the bud union and trees were trained to an open-vase or central-leader form. For the first 4 years, high-headed trees were larger than low-headed trees. After 7 years, open-vase trees had larger trunk cross-sectional area, tree spread, and canopy volume than central-leader trees. Open-vase trees had higher yield and crop value per tree, but lower yield and crop value per unit of land area or unit of canopy volume than central-leader trees. Crop density and yield efficiency were similar for all treatments.

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George J. Wulster and Thomas M. Ombrello

Growth and flowering of Ixia hybrids as potted plants can be controlled environmentally by cool preplant storage of corms, regulation of greenhouse forcing temperatures, and application of a growth retardant. Paclobutrazol applied as a preplant corm soak, a postemergent drench, or a postemergent spray in combination with a 2- to 4-week preplant storage of corms at 7 °C, and an 18 °C day/10 °C night forcing temperature produced attractive and marketable plants. Chemical name used: β-[(4-chlorophenyl)methyl]-α-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-ethanol (paclobutrazol, Bonzi®).

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Zhi-Liang Zheng, Jyan-Chyun Jang, James D. Metzger, and Zhenbiao Yang

Plant architecture is a major consideration during the commercial production of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev). We have addressed this problem through a biotechnological approach: genetic engineering of chrysanthemum cv. Iridon plants that ectopically expressed a tobacco phytochrome B1 gene under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter. The transgenic plants were shorter, greener in leaves, and had larger branch angles than wild-type (WT) plants. Transgenic plants also phenocopied WT plants grown under light condition depleted of far-red wavelengths. Furthermore, the reduction of growth by the expressed PHY-B1 transgene did not directly involve gibberellins. The commercial application of this biotechnology could provide an economic alternative to the use of chemical growth regulators, and thus reduce the production cost.