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Soo-Hyung Kim and Bert Cregg

biochemical model of C 3 photosynthesis ( Farquhar et al., 1980 ) to estimate the conductance of CO 2 from the intercellular air spaces to the site of carboxylation inside the chloroplast. This method has been found to compare well with other methods ( Bunce

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Katherine F. Garland, Stephanie E. Burnett, Michael E. Day, and Marc W. van Iersel

increased sensitivity of stomata to abscisic acid, the primary hormone responsible for stomatal closure during water stress ( Pospíšilová and Dodd, 2005 ). Even non-stomatal limitations to photosynthesis such as the maximum carboxylation rate of rubisco (Vc

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Juan Carlos Díaz-Pérez

., Ramsey, NJ). Leaf gas exchange and photosystem II efficiency. Simultaneous measurements of leaf gas exchange (net photosynthesis, g S , transpiration, and internal CO 2 concentration) and fluorescence determined as photosystem II (PSII) efficiency were

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Giverson Mupambi, Stefano Musacchi, Sara Serra, Lee A. Kalcsits, Desmond R. Layne, and Tory Schmidt

( Murata et al., 2007 ). The measurement of photosynthetic light use efficiency can be used to estimate plant photosynthesis and net primary production ( Flanagan et al., 2015 ; Liu et al., 2013 ). Leaf-level photosynthetic light use efficiency can be

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Lie Li, Yu-xin Tong, Jun-ling Lu, Yang-mei Li, and Qi-chang Yang

proportional stage of the CO 2 photosynthetic curve was fitted to Rubisco activity (carboxylation efficiency), whereas the maximum net photosynthetic rate was fitted to P m . Observations of stomata. To perform stomata observations, rubber elastic impression

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Donavon Sonnenberg, Patrick A. Ndakidemi, Ambrose Okem, and Charles Laubscher

by improving the photosynthetic efficiency of plants. Plant biomass production is directly dependent on the net photosynthetic rate ( Sing et al., 2013 ). Photosynthesis is the process by which photosynthetically active radiation (within the

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Amanda J. Taylor, R. Thomas Fernandez, Pascal Nzokou, and Bert Cregg

carboxylation capacity resulting from reduced foliar N at high irrigation rates was not a factor affecting Δ 13 C of trees. Thus, we speculate that g wv must be limiting assimilation of 13 C into plant tissue. Water use efficiency based on gas exchange

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Soohyun Kang, Yating Zhang, Yuqi Zhang, Jie Zou, Qichang Yang, and Tao Li

photosynthesis rates ( A n ) to ( A ) photosynthetic photon flux density ( PPFD ) and ( B ) intercellular CO 2 partial pressures ( C i ), as well as the quantum efficiency of photosynthetic system II (ΦPSII) to ( C ) PPFD and ( D ) C i . Error bars show ± se

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Alefsi David Sánchez-Reinoso, Gustavo Adolfo Ligarreto-Moreno, and Hermann Restrepo-Díaz

efficiency ( iWUE ) was also calculated as a product of the relationship between photosynthesis and g S . Carboxylation efficiency was calculated by the ratio of photosynthesis and intercellular CO 2 concentration ( P n /C i ). Gas exchange measurements

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Vahid Rahimi Eichi, Stephen D. Tyerman, and Michelle G. Wirthensohn

Mesophyll conductance to CO 2 in Arabidopsis thaliana New Phytol. 175 501 511 Garland, K.F. Burnett, S.E. Day, M.E. Van Iersel, M.W. 2012 Influence of substrate water content and daily light integral on photosynthesis, water use efficiency, and morphology