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Xunzhong Zhang, Kehua Wang, and Erik H. Ervin

impaired CA phenotype in the aba mutant ( Heino et al., 1990 ; Thomashow, 1999 ). This suggests that changes in ABA metabolism during CA or in response to exogenous ABA may contribute to freezing tolerance improvement. Cold acclimation induced

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Theoharis Ouzounis, Eva Rosenqvist, and Carl-Otto Ottosen

metabolites, such as carbohydrates and amino acids, plants contain a vast variety of chemical compounds, distinct from the intermediates and products of primary metabolism, which are called secondary metabolites (SMs). Little is known about the physiological

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Jun Ban and Frank G. Dennis Jr.

Some apple cultivars are biennial. Experiments with the facultatively parthenocarpic apple cultivar `Spencer Seedless' indicated that seeds are responsible for inhibiting flowering (Chan and Cain, Proc. ASHS 91:63-68, 1967). Because gibberellin inhibits flowering in apple, seed GAs may be responsible for biennial bearing, or seeds may affect metabolism of GAs in bourse shoots. To obtain additional information, 14C - G A12 was injected into seeds or bourse shoots of `Spencer Seedless' and the metabolites were extracted after 24 or 48 hr. Metabolites moved from seeds to bourse shoots and vice versa in 1992, only the most polar compound(s) being transported. However, transport was not observed in 1993. Five metabolites of 14C - G A12 were found in apices following injection, 5 to 7 in seeds. Two metabolites occurred in fruit flesh following seed treatment. The presence of seeds appeared to have no qualitative effect on metabolism in the bourse shoot, although the metabolites have not yet been identified.

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Zhongchun Jiang, Chenping Xu, and Bingru Huang

led to redistribution of reduced N (total N excluding nitrate-N) from perennial ryegrass roots and verdure to the leaves. Few studies of turfgrass have reported activities of enzymes in organic N metabolism of young and old leaves of plants under N

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Jianming Sun, Yiming Liu, Xianglin Li, and Bingru Huang

understood. Protein metabolism plays essential roles in regulating plant tolerance to various stresses, including drought stress. Effects of drought stress on proteins involve complicated processes, including acceleration of the denaturation, proteolysis, and

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Qiuyue Ma, Shushun Li, Jing Wen, Lu Zhu, Kunyuan Yan, Qianzhong Li, Shuxian Li, and Bin Zhang

maturity. In addition, seed morphology and the levels of chemical compounds vary greatly at different developmental stages, and the expressions of genes related to FA metabolism vary ( Wang et al., 2019 ). The temporal and spatial characteristics of the

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Dongfeng Liu, Junbei Ni, Ruiyuan Wu, and Yuanwen Teng

studied. Sugar metabolism is a basic biochemical process that affects internal fruit qualities, as sugar is the main taste component and is also a substrate for the biosynthesis of pigments, amino acids, vitamins, and aromatic volatiles. In Rosaceae fruit

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Cong Li, Lie-Bao Han, and Xunzhong Zhang

; Quan et al., 2010 ). The results of our study suggest that improvement of drought tolerance in the transgenic lines may be associated with upregulation of proline metabolism. The results of this study indicated that the transgenic tobacco plants

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Ju Ding, Kai Shi, Yan-Hong Zhou, and Jing-Quan Yu

little is known about oxidative metabolism in plant resistance to pathogens that invade plant vascular system ( Garcia-Limones et al., 2002 ; Mehdy et al., 1996 ). Although BRs are known as a kind of immobile hormones, it has been shown to enhance

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Nianwei Qiu, Li Tian, Xifeng Yan, Haoyu Dong, Mengyu Zhang, Guoliang Han, and Feng Zhou

28 d. The bars are means ± sd (n = 10). Means marked with different letters indicate significant difference ( P < 0.05). Effects of calcium and strontium on metabolism. Under the +Ca condition, although 4 and 10 mmol·L −1 strontium