Elemental deficiencies of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, or B were induced in plants of Allamanda nerifolia. Rooted stem cuttings were planted in 4.87-L plastic containers and fertilized with a complete modified Hoagland's solution or this solution minus the element that was to be investigated. Plants were harvested to measure dry weights when initial foliar symptoms were expressed and later under advanced deficiency symptoms. Deficiency symptoms for all treatments were observed within 6 weeks. The most dramatic expression of foliar symptoms occurred with N (yellow-green young leaves with necrotic tips), K (downward bending medium-green mature leaves with splotchy chlorosis), S (greenish-yellow young and youngest leaves), and Zn (young leaves with interveinal chlorosis from base to tip). At the initial stage, all nutrient-deficient plants had similar dry weights, when compared to the control. Dry weights of plants treated with solutions not containing N or P were significantly lower when compared to the control under an advanced deficiency. To help prevent the development of deficiencies, minimal critical tissue levels have to be determined for adaptation by the greenhouse industry for nutritional monitoring.
James L. Gibson, Jude Groninger, Sharon Wombles, and Kathryn Campbell
Douglas A. Cox
`Annette Hegg Brilliant Diamond' poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Kl.) was grown in an unlimed growth medium consisting of equal volumes of sphagnum peat and perlite and received a fertilizer solution supplying all micronutrients except Mo. Plants were untreated or foliage was sprayed with solutions of 1, 10, or 100 mg Mo/liter 5, 8, or 11 weeks after pinching. Untreated plants developed foliar symptoms of Mo deficiency (marginal and interveinal chlorosis, marginal necrosis, and downward curling), and leaf tissue contained Mo below the critical level of 0.5 μg·g-1 and NO3-N > 1.0%. Treatment at 5 or 8 weeks largely prevented deficiency symptoms, increased tissue Mo, and reduced tissue NO3-N. Molybdenum deficiency symptoms were in the early stages of development on the day of treatment when plants were sprayed at 11 weeks. Molybdenum sprays at this time increased tissue Mo and reduced tissue NO3-N but did not eliminate the symptoms. However, when the experiment was completed 15 weeks after pinching, the number of leaves showing symptoms was about one-half that of untreated plants. Increasing the concentration of Mo in the spray solution increased the concentration of Mo in the leaves but had no effect on NO3-N.
Gary R. Bachman and Mary C. Halbrooks
The role of Fe DTPA (Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) in the occurrence of a specific physiological disorder affecting the leaves of cutting geranium was investigated. Industry reports indicate that affected leaves have excessively high concentrations of Fe and sometimes Mn. Symptoms of the disorder first affect maturing leaves, and may in severe cases affect immature leaves. Symptoms progress from marginal/interveinal chlorosis and necrosis, to affect whole leaf necrosis. Rooted cuttings were grown in a soil-less peat based media, with Fe DTPA concentrations of 1, 5, 15, and 20 ppm. Iron and manganese leaf concentrations were significantly higher in symptom than in non-symptom tissue and increased as Fe DTPA treatment level increased. As Fe DTPA treatment level increased there was a significant increase in dry weight of symptom tissue and a decrease in non-symptom tissue dry weight. Plants grown in media amended with dolomite (pH> 5.8) had similar degrees of symptom occurrence compared to plants grown in unamended media (pH ≈ 5.4).
G.A. Picchioni, S. Miyamoto, and J.B. Storey
Growth and B uptake of five pecan [Carya illinoensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] seedling cultivars were evaluated in two greenhouse experiments. Seedlings were exposed for 7 to 8 months to various B-containing irrigation solutions. In one study, the growth of `Apache', `Riverside', and `Burkett' seedlings declined significantly with a 5.0-mg B/liter application that provided 12.3 mg B/liter in the soil saturation extract. In the second study, B application of 2.5 mg·1iter-1 (6.4 mg·liter-1 in the saturation extract) reduced growth of `Western' and Wichita' seedlings. Seedling sources differed in susceptibility to B applications. `Apache' and `Wichita' seedlings were the more sensitive cultivars in the experiments. Leaf B concentrations increased linearly with concentrations in the saturation extract (r = 0.96 to 0.99), but did not depend on the cultivar. Boron toxicity (leaf interveinal chlorosis and tip necrosis) occurred within several weeks following B application of 1.25 to 2.5 mg·liter-1 (2.8 to 6.6 mg·liter-1 in the saturation extract, depending on cultivar). Three months later, chlorotic areas became necrotic in leaves containing >900 mg B/kg dry weight. Severe necrosis and some defoliation occurred when B concentrations were increased further. Leaves with no injury contained ≤325 mg B/kg.
James L. Gibson, Jude Groninger, Sharon Wombles, and Kathryn Campbell
Elemental deficiencies of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, or B were induced in plants of Pentas lanceolata `Butterfly Red'. Rooted stem cuttings were planted in 4.87-L plastic containers and fertilized with a complete modified Hoagland's solution or this solution minus the element that was to be investigated. Plants were harvested to measure dry weights when initial foliar symptoms were expressed and later under advanced deficiency symptoms. Deficiency symptoms for all treatments were observed within 7 weeks. The most dramatic expression of foliar symptoms occurred with N (medium green young leaves with interveinal chlorosis on base and tip), S (spindle-like young and recently mature leaves), Cu (purple-brown roots and young leaves with downward pointed leaf tips), and B (multiple youngest leaves arising from shoot tip). At the initial stage, all nutrient-deficient plants had similar dry weights, when compared to the control. Dry weights of plants treated with solutions not containing P were significantly lower when compared to the control under an advanced deficiency. In order to help prevent the development of deficiencies, minimal critical tissue levels have to be determined for adaptation by the greenhouse industry for nutritional monitoring.
S.M. Olson, D.O. Chellemi, and P.C. Andersen
Since the fall of 1986, tomato growers in northwestern Florida and southwestern Georgia production areas have encountered plants in their fields with unusual growth characteristics. Early symptoms consist of interveinal chlorosis of the young leaves. Subsequent top growth becomes severely distorted with leaflets along the midrib failing to expand properly, resulting in a “little-leaf” appearance. Additional symptoms included cessation of terminal growth, leaves with twisted and brittle midribs, and axillary buds failing to develop properly. Fruit that set on mildly affected plants are distorted, with radial cracks extending from the calyx to the blossom scar. In severely affected plants, fruit failed to set. The problem usually occurs at very low levels, but in 2 years since 1986, the problem has caused some economic damage. To determine a possible cause, samples were taken for virus detection. None were detected in affected plants. Samples were also taken of tissue and soil from affected areas for nutrient and pesticide analysis. No explanation could be developed from any of the tissue or soil samples. The problem usually occurs in wet areas and after very warm temperatures. The problem appears to be very similar to a nonparasitic disease that occurs in tobacco, called “frenching.” In tobacco, frenching occurs in wet, poorly aerated soils with a soil pH >6.3 and during warm temperatures. There seems to be an organism or organisms present under certain conditions that live on the root surface and exude chemicals that cause this distorted growth.
Tehryung Kim, Harry A. Mills, and Hazel Y. Wetzstein
Zinc deficiency is a nutrient disorder that is observed in pecan production areas. In the field it is characterized by a rosette shoot habit and interveinal leaf chlorosis. Up to now, the induction of zinc deficiency has not been accomplishable in the field or greenhouse. Thus any critical evaluations of effects of zinc nutrition on tree growth and development have been lacking. A hydroponic culture system was developed where zinc deficiency was induced. Seedstocks collected from `Stuart', `Curtis', and `Wichita' trees were grown with and without zinc supply. Biomass, leaf area, node number, and visual symptoms were assessed. Foliar deficiency symptoms were rated 4 and structural evaluations were conducted using light and electron microscopy. Significant differences in visual symptoms were observed between treatments and among cultivars. Leaf area significantly decreased in `Stuart' and `Curtis' under zinc deficient conditions. Zinc had no significant effect on biomass and internodal length. Foliar nutrient contents were compared between cultivars. Our data suggest that genotypic differences in sensitivity to zinc deficiency exists and improving pecan production through genetic selection for zinc efficiency appears promising.
G.A. Picchioni, S. Miyamoto, and J.B. Storey
Seedlings of three pistachio rootstock (Pistacia atlantica Desf., P. terebinthus L., and P. integerrima Stewart × atlantica) and of the pistachio scion cultivar Kerman (P. vera. L.) were grown in calcareous sandy loam irrigated with B solutions (0 to 15 mg·liter-1) in a greenhouse. After 10.5 months of B treatment, rootstock seedling growth (root + stem weight and leaf dry weight, area, and number per plant) had decreased linearly with B application, which provided up to 48.9 mg B/liter in the soil saturation extract. Growth of P. terebinthus was greater than P. atlantica throughout the concentration range, but species sensitivity to B did not differ. Nine months of B at concentrations up to 10.7 mg·liter-1 in the saturation extract did not alter the growth of P. vera seedlings. Leaf B concentrations of all species increased linearly with saturation extract B concentration after each of two growing periods and were higher in leaves of P. terebinthus than P. atlantica. From 62% to 75% of B was present in leaf tissue of the rootstock seedlings, with lower quantities in roots and stems. Boron toxicity appeared initially as interveinal chlorosis and apical necrosis of 1-month-old, fully expanded leaflets of the rootstock species. By 4 months, symptoms in some treatments advanced to severe necrosis of leaflets. Boron addition increased the concentrations of total leaf sugars (glucose, fructose, and sucrose) and root starch, decreased root glucose concentrations, and had no effect on other root carbohydrates of P. vera seedlings. Leaf carbohydrate supply limitations and altered root carbohydrate status may be consequences of high B in P. vera seedling leaves.
Jared Barnes, Brian Whipker, Ingram McCall, and Jonathan Frantz
been reported for mealy-cup sage. Interveinal chlorosis was reported as a symptom for Mg deficiency ( SePRO, 2000 ). Symptoms described for high electrical conductivity (EC) included necrotic foliage ( Armitage et al., 1994 ) and leaf cupping ( SePRO
Paul Cockson, Josh B. Henry, Ingram McCall, and Brian E. Whipker
). In advanced stages of Ca deficiency, the apical bud became necrotic, and plant death followed. Magnesium. Plants grown under Mg-deficient conditions first exhibited chlorosis of the interveinal regions of the middle and lower leaves. Magnesium tissue