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) describes 20 years of research evaluating nursery crops grown using hundreds of experimental substrates derived from individual or combined raw or composted farm, industrial, and consumer-waste by-products. With few exceptions, the waste materials served as

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Alan W. Hodges, Charles R. Hall, Marco A. Palma, and Hayk Khachatryan

retail distribution industry group includes farm and garden equipment merchant wholesalers (423820), nursery and florist merchant wholesalers (42493), lawn and garden equipment and supplies stores (4442), and florists (4531). These green industry sectors

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Myles Lewis, Chieri Kubota, Russell Tronstad, and Young-Jun Son

grafting robots). The capital/facility items that we consider are found in the later section of capital costs. Each item has a typical “useful life” according to the available guidelines of the IRS (2012) . For example, farm buildings such as a headhouse

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Melinda Knuth, Bridget K. Behe, Charles R. Hall, Patricia Huddleston, and R. Thomas Fernandez

and water usage in the landscape In the residential context, indoor water usage remains relatively stable throughout the year and is largely attributed to household size and appliance efficiency ( Gregory and Leo, 2003 ; Syme et al., 1991 ). However

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Bridget K. Behe, Benjamin Campbell, Jennifer Dennis, Charles Hall, Roberto Lopez, and Chengyan Yue

.3% had purchased trees, and 24.5% had purchased indoor flowering plants. These were similar to Butterfield (2007) who showed that 33% of Americans participated in flower gardening, 30% participated in landscaping, and 22% participated in vegetable

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Kellie J. Walters, Bridget K. Behe, Christopher J. Currey, and Roberto G. Lopez

is produced not only in glasshouses but plastic-glazed houses and indoor facilities heated through many methods, most of which are not manure-based. By examining both historical trends and current practices, we can deduce possible future CE hydroponic

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Hui-Mei Chen, Hung-Ming Tu, and Chaang-Iuan Ho

of age, and 13.1% were older than age 61. Approximately 90.1% of the sample selected indoor plants as their daily horticultural activity, and 61.6% chose excursions (e.g., visiting botanical gardens, parks, farms, greenhouses, and attending flower

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Zhengnan Yan, Dongxian He, Genhua Niu, Qing Zhou, and Yinghua Qu

vertical farms. Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd Kozai, T. Niu, G. 2016a Overview and concept of closed plant production system (CPPS), p. 3–5. In: T. Kozai, G. Niu, and M. Takagaki (eds.). Plant factory: An indoor vertical farming system for efficient

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Jinshi Cui, Myongkyoon Yang, Daesik Son, Seongmin Park, and Seong-In Cho

determine the factors that influence bruising susceptibility in tomato fruit. In the current study, impact force was monitored by an accelerometer at a farm. Then, bruising and changes in quality were observed by performing an experiment in the laboratory

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Yun Kong, Devdutt Kamath, and Youbin Zheng

after exposure to short-duration blue light from light emitting diodes J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 138 31 37 Kozai, T. 2018 Smart plant factory: The next generation indoor vertical farms. Springer, Singapore Kozai, T. Niu, G. Takagaki, M. 2015 Plant Factory