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John M. Ruter

Temperatures producing heat damage in leaves of Ilex ×meserveae S.Y. Hu `Blue Prince' and Ilex rugosa × cornuta Lindl. & Paxt. `Mesdob' (China Boy) were evaluated using electrolyte leakage and chlorophyll fluorescence techniques. Whole leaves were exposed to temperatures from 30 to 65C for 30 minutes to determine critical midpoint heat-killing temperatures (TJ using electrolyte leakage techniques. The Tm for `Blue Prince' and `Mesdob' was 52.4 ± 0.lC and 53.8 ± 0.lC, respectively. Dark-adapted leaves were heated for 30 minutes in darkness at temperatures between 30 and 57C before chlorophyll fluorescence was measured. Initial (F0) and peak fluorescence measurements were higher at 54 and 55C for `Mesdob' than for `Blue Prince'. Cultivar had no effect on variable fluorescence (F,). Based on the Fv: Fo ratio, `Mesdob' was estimated to have a higher optimal plant growth temperature than `Blue Prince'. The physiologic data support the hypothesis that I. cornuta as a parent conferred heat tolerance to the interspecific hybrid in this study.

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Aref A. Abdul-Baki

Nine heat-tolerant tomato [Lycopersicon esculentum (Mill.)] breeding lines, four heat-tolerant cultivars, and four heat-sensitive cultivars were evaluated in the greenhouse under high temperature (39C day/28C night) and in the field. Criteria for heat tolerance included flowering, fruit set, yield, fruit quality, and seed production. Under high-temperature conditions, the group of heat-tolerant lines, the heat-tolerant cultivars, and the heat-sensitive cultivars produced, respectively, the following per plant: flowers, 186, 94, and 55; fruit set 70%, 52%, and 30%; yield, 410, 173, and 11 g; and normal mature fruit, 72%, 37%, and 7%. Yields of heat-tolerant lines under high temperature in the greenhouse ranged from 118% to 31% of their respective yields in the field. Yields of heat-tolerant cultivars were 62% of those in the field. In contrast, yields of heat-sensitive cultivars under high temperature were < 1% of their respective yields in the field. High temperature induced flower abscission, reduced fruit set and yield, and increased the incidence of abnormalities. Major fruit abnormalities with high temperatures included cracks, blossomed rot, watery tissue, and small, immature fruits. Production of viable seeds under the high-temperature regime was severely reduced or totally inhibited regardless of the heat-tolerance level exhibited by the line or cultivar. The failure of heat-sensitive and most heat-tolerant cultivars or lines to produce viable seeds under such a high temperature suggests that a lower level of heat stress than that applied in these experiments could allow the production of enough seeds to test the relationship between heat tolerance in a genotype and its ability to produce viable seeds under high temperature. The results indicate that certain lines have high tolerance to heat and, therefore, could provide valuable sources of plant material for physiological studies to establish the physiological and molecular bases of heat tolerance. Some of the heat-tolerant lines might also serve as excellent germplasm sources in breeding heat-tolerant tomato cultivars.

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Aref A. Abdul-Baki

Selected breeding lines and cultivars of tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentrum Mill.) were evaluated for heat tolerance in the greenhouse (39°C day and 28°C night) and field using flowering, fruit-set, yield, fruit quality, and seed production as criteria. Under high temperature, heat tolerant lines performed better than the other two groups in all evaluation criteria except for seed production. The opposite was found under normal field conditions where heat sensitive commercial cultivars outyielded the heat tolerant lines and cultivars. Production of viable seeds under high temperature was severely reduced regardless of the heat tolerance level exhibited by the line or cultivar. Some of the heat tolerant lines could provide valuable sources of plant material for physiological studies to establish the molecular basis of heat tolerance and also could provide excellent germplasm sources for breeding heat tolerant tomato cultivars.

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Neil L. Heckman, Garald L. Horst, Roch E. Gaussoin, and Linda J. Young

Heat accumulation during storage of sod may reach lethal temperatures within 4 days, decreasing sod quality. Treatment with trinexapac-ethyl reduces heat accumulation during sod storage. However, heat tolerance of grasses treated with trinexapacethyl has not been documented. Our objectives were to: 1) determine the lethal temperatures for Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.); and 2) identify the effect of a single application of trinexapac-ethyl on heat tolerance. Experimental design was a randomized complete block with three replications and a two (trinexapac-ethyl vs. control) × two (cultivars) factorial arrangement of treatments. Ten days after chemical treatment, Kentucky bluegrass sprigs were exposed to heat stress for 4 days in a temperature gradient block under low vapor pressure deficit. Treatment with trinexapac-ethyl at 0.23 kg·ha-1 reduced heat tolerance. Temperature needed to kill 50% of the population was 35.5 °C for treated vs. 36.1 °C for nontreated grass. Trinexapac-ethyl is in the same chemical family as the cyclohexanedione herbicides that interfere with lipid syntheses in grasses. This may be a reason for the slight decrease in heat tolerance. The practical value of trinexapac-ethyl treatment in reducing heat accumulation during storage of sod may be partially negated by a decrease in heat tolerance. Chemical name used: [(4-cyclopropyl-α-hydroxy-methylene)-3,5-dioxocyclohexanecarboxylic acid methyl ester] (trinexapac-ethyl).

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Karen E. Burr, Stephen J. Wanner, and Richard W. Tinus

It is not known when changes in primary direct heat stress tolerance of conifer seedlings occur in relation to other seasonally changing physiological parameters. This information should be incorporated into nursery practices and the matching of genotypes to landscape sites. Greenhouse-cultured, container-grown Douglas-fir, Engelmann spruce, and ponderosa pine. were cold acclimated and reacclimated in growth chambers over 19 weeks. Direct heat stress tolerance of needles, cold hardiness, and bud dormancy were measured weekly. Douglas-fir and Engelmann spruce heat stress tolerance increased with the development of new growth through one complete growth cycle, i.e., bud break, maturation, cold hardening, dehardening, and bud break the following growing season. Ponderosa pine differed in that new needles had intermediate tolerance, and fully cold hardy needles were the most intolerant. In none of the species did the timing of changes in heat stress tolerance coincide consistently with changes in cold hardiness or bud dormancy.

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Abbas Lafta, Thomas Turini, German V. Sandoya, and Beiquan Mou

, which may negatively impact the agricultural production and food availability ( Karl and Trenberth, 2003 ; Wurr et al., 1996 ). Heat tolerance is the ability of plants to grow and perform well under high temperature stress. Development of new crop

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Kathryn R. Kleiner and John J. Frett

A greenhouse study was designed to determine the relative heat tolerance of 10 lima bean cultivars and to evaluate the effects of high temperature on lima bean yield. Cultivars were arranged in a randomized complete block with three blocks per treatment. The temperature treatments were 25C day/15C night and 35C day/25C night. Cultivars varied in their response to the higher temperature, allowing for classification into three heat response groups: intolerant, average, and tolerant. Heat-intolerant plants did not experience a significant reduction in number of pods, but number of beans and total bean weight were reduced at the higher temperature. Number of seeds per pod and average weight per bean also tended to decrease in intolerant plants at 35C. In future experiments, these data will be correlated with random amplified DNA (RAPD) markers. These markers will be evaluated for their potential for heat tolerance screening.

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M.E. Mangrich and M.E. Saltveit

136 ORAL SESSION 29 (Abstr. 205–210) Stress–Heat and Water

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Seenivasan Natarajan and Jeff Kuehny

Small heat shock proteins (sHSP) are a specific group of highly conserved proteins produced in almost all living organisms under heat stress. These sHSP have been shown to help prevent damage at the biomolecular level in plants. One of the greatest impediments to production of marketable herbaceous plants and their longevity is high temperature stress. The objectives of this experiment were to study the plant responses in terms of sHSP synthesis, single leaf net photosynthesis, total water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC), and overall growth for two S. splendens cultivars differing in performance under heat stress. `Vista Red' (heat tolerant) and `Sizzler Red' (heat sensitive) were exposed to short duration (3 hours) high temperature stresses of 30, 35, and 40 °C in growth chambers. Increasing the temperature to about 10 to 15 °C above the optimal growth temperature (25 °C, control) induced the synthesis of sHSP 27 in S. splendens. Expression of these proteins was significantly greater in the heat-tolerant vs. the heat-sensitive cultivar. Soluble carbohydrate content was greater in `Vista Red', and in both the cultivars raffinose was the primary soluble carbohydrate in heat-stressed plants. Overall growth of plants was significantly different in the two cultivars studied in terms of plant height, stem thickness, number of days to flower, and marketable quality. The better performance of `Vista Red' under heat stress was attributed to its morphological characteristics, including short stature, thicker stems and leaves. sHSPs and WSC are also found to be associated with heat tolerance and heat adaptation in S. splendens.

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Seenivasan Natarajan, Jeff S. Kuehny, and James E. Board

One of the greatest impediments to production of marketable ornamental herbaceous plants in southern U.S. is high temperature stress. Exposure of plants to sub-lethal temperature (heat preconditioning) before sustained heat stress helps some plants to tolerate subsequent heat stress a phenomenon often referred as acquired thermotolerance. The objective of this research was to examine various morphological, physiological and anatomical responses of `Vista red' (heat tolerant) and `Sizzler red'(heat sensitive) cultivars of Salvia splendens to heat preconditioning (HC) and subsequent heat stress treatments (challenging temperatures, CT). Cultivars of Salvia were subjected to short duration HC of 35 °C for 3 hours every third day until 5 weeks after germination and subsequent exposure to two CT treatments 30/23 °C and 35/28 °C (D/N) cycles in growth chambers for the next five weeks. Plant growth, marketable quality, stomatal conductance and net photosynthesis declined for Sizzler Red without HC treatment. Compared with nonpreconditioned plants, heat preconditioned Sizzler Red had 38.28% higher root dry weight, 95% greater leaf thickness, 50% higher marketable quality at 35/28 °C heat stress condition. Heat preconditioning helped both Vista Red and Sizzler to survive in both the heat stress treatments. Vista Red had greater heat tolerant traits than Sizzler Red, these traits exacerbated with heat preconditioning treatment. The results demonstrated that heat preconditioning enhanced heat tolerance in cultivars of Salvia, which could be related to maintenance of dense plant growth with shorter internodes, thicker stems, greater stomatal conductance, extensive root growth that compensated the transpirational water loss and overall cooling of plants.