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Ryan M. Warner

inhibited during the young plant stage. Promotion of axillary meristem release from apical dominance is often achieved through shoot decapitation, or “pinching” ( Larson, 1985 ), or by application of chemical growth regulators, including benzyladenine

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Christopher J. Currey and Roberto G. Lopez

program that has a minimum and maximum target height range based on the cultivar response time, height at pinching, and final desired height ( Fisher and Heins, 2002 ). Actual plant height of a subset of the population is measured weekly and plotted on the

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Diana R. Cochran, Amy Fulcher, and Guihong Bi

( Hammond et al., 2007 ), increasing branch number ( Holland et al., 2007 ), and increasing flower number ( Abdelgadir et al., 2010 ). However, since the introduction of chemical pinching agents in the 1960s ( Cathey et al., 1966 ), there has been an ongoing

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Peter Alem, Paul A. Thomas, and Marc W. van Iersel

immediately after pinching. Height tracking curves were developed with software from the University of Florida, Department of Environmental Horticulture (Gainesville, FL). These tracking curves are developed by entering the pinching date, plant height at

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Youping Sun, Guihong Bi, Genhua Niu, and Christina Perez

pruned or pinched on an annual basis to prevent them from being “leggy” and to promote lateral branching. Pruning or pinching is a common technique in hydrangea production to reduce plant size, stimulate lateral branching, improve overall appearance, and

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Christopher J. Currey and John E. Erwin

Minnesota, St. Paul, MS Thesis Pertuit, A.J. 1973 The effects of terminal pinching and chemical growth regulation of Kalanchoe blossfeldiana v Poellnitz. Univ. Georgia Res. Bul. 132 3 14 Rademacher, W. 2000 Growth retardants: Effects on gibberellin

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Janet C. Cole, Robert O. Brown, and Mark E. Payton

growing point, leaving a clean cut with no bruising or tearing of the stems below the cut as might occur with mechanical shearing in a nursery. An alternative to pinching might be the use of plant growth regulators if an effective chemical and method of

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Diana R. Cochran and Amy Fulcher

phytotoxicity ( Meijón et al., 2009 ) and be perceived as digressing from sustainable production ( Lütken et al., 2012 ). Plant growth regulators have several modes of action, including branch inducing, chemical pinching (chemicals that suppress apical dominance

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Tomomi Eguchi and Chieri Kubota

as at the propagation stage ( Bausher, 2011 ). Therefore, the use of chemicals to inhibit the cotyledonary axillary shoot growth from rootstock may allow grafting above cotyledons and reduce the additional management cost of grafted tomato production

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Alexa J. Lamm, Laura A. Warner, Peyton Beattie, Abraham Tidwell, Paul R. Fisher, and Sarah A. White

older) option, or redesigning the technology to suit specific needs ( Kline and Pinch, 1996 ). This study leverages the diffusion of an innovation model to identify and quantify three critical elements of the water treatment technology adoption cycle