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Jeb S. Fields, Kristopher S. Criscione, and Ashley Edwards

The nursery industry is an expanding sector in agriculture that requires intensive use of water and fertilizer to produce salable crops. Many nursery growers rely on bark-based soilless substrates as the primary component of their growing media

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James S. Owen Jr and James E. Altland

container at 2-cm intervals using simulation models based on moisture characteristic curves of a 3 bark:1 sand (by vol.) substrate. The predicted gradient had a 37% (110 mL) increase in substrate moisture content from the top (32% CC) to bottom (69% CC) of a

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Jacob H. Shreckhise, James S. Owen Jr., Matthew J. Eick, Alexander X. Niemiera, James E. Altland, and Brian E. Jackson

. (2001) and Michalak et al. (2015) concluded that P runoff from agricultural operations is a primary contributor to eutrophication in the United States. Substrates used in containerized nursery crop production predominantly comprise pine bark ( Pinus

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Aude Tixier, Adele Amico Roxas, Jessie Godfrey, Sebastian Saa, Dani Lightle, Pauline Maillard, Bruce Lampinen, and Maciej A. Zwieniecki

temperature interferes with phenology comes from the common orchard practice of painting stems to protect them from disease ( Karels and Boonstra, 2003 ; Sheppard et al., 2016 ). White bark is also naturally displayed in species of Betula , Fraxinus , and

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Kaylee A. South, Paul A. Thomas, Marc W. van Iersel, Cindy Young, and Michelle L. Jones

; Lopez and Runkle, 2005 ). Commercial production of Phalaenopsis is usually in a bark-based potting media that allows for good aeration and drainage ( Griesbach, 2002 ). In the home environment, proper irrigation is the largest challenge to maintaining

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Michael W. Olszewski, Samara J. Danan, and Thomas J. Boerth

Surfactants increase wettability of pine bark and may be required in coarse substrates to enhance lateral movement of water and reduce infiltration rate through a container ( Bilderback, 1993 ). Cid-Ballarin et al. (1998) hypothesized that

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Jayesh B. Samtani, Gary J. Kling, Hannah M. Mathers, and Luke Case

improving plant growth and reducing labor. Although the primary use of mulches in the horticulture industry is in the landscape, they can serve as herbicide carriers in container production. Oryzalin-treated douglas fir bark increased weed control by a

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James S. Owen Jr, Stuart L. Warren, Ted E. Bilderback, and Joseph P. Albano

that covers ≈186,000 ha with over 7000 operations accounting for $4 billion of annual cash receipts ( USDA, 2004 ). The majority (73%) of crops produced by the U.S. nursery industry are grown in containers with inert softwood barks as the substrate

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C. L. Parish

Abstract

Blister bark, a scaly bark-type disorder of ‘Delicious’ apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) is shown to consist of 3 similar disorders. Two of these, blister bark 1 (the one most commonly encountered in the Northwestern United States) and blister bark 2, are graft transmissible. The 3rd disorder, blister bark 3, was not transmitted. The symptoms are described and the differences discussed. Another bark disorder, a form of internal bark necrosis, is shown to be graft-transmissible. A key to differentiate the blister bark complex is presented.

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J.G. Williamson and E.P. Miller

expansion of southern highbush blueberry acreage targeted for this early market is anticipated ( Strik and Yarborough, 2005 ; U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2007 ; Williamson and Lyrene 2004a ). Pine bark culture is currently the most common method for