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Lisa A. Beirn, William A. Meyer, Bruce B. Clarke, and Jo Anne Crouch

obligate nature of rust fungi makes propagation in culture extremely difficult or impossible in the absence of the host plant ( Agrios, 2005 ). Attempts to grow graminicolous rust fungi in culture in the laboratory have met with varying levels of success

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James D. McCreight and William M. Wintermantel

alternate inbreeding with backcrossing required to make effective progress with a recessive trait in a conventional selection scheme ( Scully and Federer, 1993 ). Moreover, PI 313970 possesses many other host plant resistance genes that enable development of

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Whitney J. Garton, Mark Mazzola, Travis R. Alexander, and Carol A. Miles

orchards. However, Garton et al. (2018b) found new N. malicorticis infections of susceptible hosts to occur after applying many of these common fungicide treatments on cider apple trees in northwest Washington. Further, in commercial orchards, these

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Sephra N. Rampersad

microsclerotia even in the absence of a suitable host ( Bruehl, 1987 ; Griffiths, 1970 ; Wilhelm, 1955 ). Microsclerotia are composed of compact, thick-walled, melanized cells that arise by budding from septate, swollen hyphae ( Griffiths, 1970 ) and function

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Charles S. Krasnow, Andrew A. Wyenandt, Wesley L. Kline, J. Boyd Carey, and Mary K. Hausbeck

-injected fungicide program that contained mandipropamid (Revus SC; Syngenta Crop Protection, Greensborough, NC) alternated with fluopicolide (Presidio SC; Valent Co., Walnut Creek, CA) provided 75% control of P. capsici root and crown rot of summer squash

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David J. Norman and Jianjun Chen

guidelines, bacteria can still enter production facilities through contaminated seeds, propagative materials, aerosols, wind, alternate hosts, human contacts, or human error ( Daughtrey et al., 1995 ). In many cases, the initial mode of introduction of the

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D. Michael Glenn

al. (2011) (< >, < >). In these studies, white light and black light illumination were synchronized to alternately go

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Myrtle P. Shock, Clinton C. Shock, Erik B.G. Feibert, Nancy L. Shaw, Lamont D. Saunders, and Ram K. Sampangi

., 2004 ; Meilleur et al., 1990 ). The geographic distribution of L. dissectum chemical properties is unknown. On modern rangelands, L. dissectum serves as the host to Depressaria leptotaeniae moth larvae that feed on umbel sheaths and umbels

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Nihat Guner, Luis A. Rivera-Burgos, and Todd C. Wehner

nongenetic control methods, such as the use of insecticides to eliminate virus vectors, herbicides to remove alternate host (weeds) for the virus, removing old crop plants quickly, and avoiding overlapping or side-by-side plantings. In this study, we focused

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Peter C. Andersen, Stephen M. Olson, M. Timur Momol, and Joshua H. Freeman

pest, respectively ( Bauske, 1998 ). TSW is difficult to control because both the virus and the insect vectors have very broad host ranges ( Roselló et al., 1996 ). Although there are several new tomato cultivars resistant to TSW available to producers