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Marc W. van Iersel, Geoffrey Weaver, Michael T. Martin, Rhuanito S. Ferrarezi, Erico Mattos, and Mark Haidekker

use it efficiently may substantially reduce the energy cost of LED lighting, and contribute to making large-scale controlled environment agriculture more profitable. Materials and Methods LEDs and control system. Photosynthetic light was provided using

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Chase Jones-Baumgardt, David Llewellyn, and Youbin Zheng

, particularly for larger-seeded genotypes. These models should help growers pinpoint a lighting strategy that is optimum for their respective growing systems, specific commodities, and production goals. Light use efficiency will also change quite dynamically

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Fumiko Kohyama, Catherine Whitman, and Erik S. Runkle

, especially greenhouses with heating and lighting systems, are used in temperate climates to produce crops for predetermined market dates. For example, production of annual bedding plants begins in the winter so that crops are marketable (i.e., of a desired

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Katherine F. Garland, Stephanie E. Burnett, Lois B. Stack, and Donglin Zhang

necessary to provide supplemental lighting during the spring production season, particularly for growers in the northeastern United States. For example, minimum DLI recommendations for high light–adapted crops such as yarrow ( Achillea millefolium ), gaura

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Robin G. Brumfield, Laura B. Kenny, Alyssa J. DeVincentis, Andrew K. Koeser, Sven Verlinden, A.J. Both, Guihong Bi, Sarah T. Lovell, and J. Ryan Stewart

irrigation systems. Such investment costs would have changed the result because our simulations included supplemental lighting, although this practice is not common in most operations. The lighting system consisted of 600-W, high-pressure sodium grow lamps

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Toshio Shibuya, Kaori Itagaki, Motoaki Tojo, Ryosuke Endo, and Yoshiaki Kitaya

, T. 2007 Propagation, grafting and transplant production in closed systems with artificial lighting for commercialization in Japan Prop. Ornam. Plants 7 145 149 Kozai, T. Ohyama, K. Chun, C. 2006 Commercialized closed systems with artificial lighting

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Liang Zheng, Huaming He, and Weitang Song

Lighting in Horticulture Horticultural production with controlled environments is one of the most energy-intensive systems in agricultural production ( Tähkämö and Dillon, 2014 ). Artificial lighting is one of the most important energy consumption areas

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Miguel Urrestarazu, Cinthia Nájera, and María del Mar Gea

Fluorescent lamps are widely used in horticulture, particularly in in vitro culture. However, LED lighting systems have several beneficial properties, including their spectral composition, durability, long operating lifetime, wavelength specificity

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Xiaotao Ding, Liyao Yu, Yuping Jiang, Shaojun Yang, Lizhong He, Qiang Zhou, Jizhu Yu, and Danfeng Huang

productivity along with quality and enriching crop management practices. In crop production systems, the maximum photosynthetic capacity is usually difficult to achieve because of physiological and environmental limitations, such as varied leaf maturity, light

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Chieri Kubota, Michael A. McClure, Nancy Kokalis-Burelle, Michael G. Bausher, and Erin N. Rosskopf

producing transplants under artificial lighting have been recently adapted to commercial propagators after the successful development of a commercially available transplant production unit in Japan ( Tsuchiya, 2003 ) ( Fig. 3 ). Research directed toward