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Matthew Arrington, Mateus S. Pasa, and Todd C. Einhorn

auxin naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and its amide (NAD) also thin pears although results have been variable ( Asín et al., 2009 ; Theron et al., 2011 ; Wertheim, 2000 ) and adverse effects such as induced premature ripening and reduced storage life of

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Shi-Lin Tian, Li Li, Yue-Qin Tian, S.N.M. Shah, and Zhen-Hui Gong

fruit abscission, rotting, and wrinkling. Fig. 1. The effect of different concentrations of abscisic acid [ABA (900, 600, 300, 150, and 100 mg·L −1 )] on capsanthin accumulation in pepper fruit. Treatment was performed at the green mature stage (25 d

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Alexander D. Pavlista, Dipak K. Santra, James A. Schild, and Gary W. Hergert

promote stem growth was known since the 1930s when a rice disease was identified to be the result of a pathogenic fungus Gibberella fujikuroi ( Takahashi et al., 1991 ). Since then, there have been more than 130 gibberellins identified. Gibberellic acid

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Torrance R. Schmidt, Don C. Elfving, James R. McFerson, and Matthew D. Whiting

Biennial bearing is a major problem for apple producers, who need new options to manage cropping and to ensure consistent yields of high-quality fruit. Flowering promoters such as Ethephon or naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) are widely used in the

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Yi Zhang and Imed Dami

15-L back sprayer (Model SP0; SP System LLC, Santa Monica, CA) averaging a spray volume of 0.5 L per vine. Abscisic acid phytotoxicity. The phytotoxicity of ABA application was evaluated on leaves and clusters. Visual observation of leaf damage

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Sanalkumar Krishnan, Kevin Laskowski, Vijaya Shukla, and Emily B. Merewitz

species. Therefore, evaluating the function of plant metabolites such as GABA that may promote the drought tolerance of perennial ryegrass and other turfgrasses is needed. GABA is a four-carbon non-protein amino acid conserved from prokaryotes to

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Nicole L. Waterland, Craig A. Campbell, John J. Finer, and Michelle L. Jones

cause of postproduction decline in greenhouse crops ( Barrett and Campbell, 2006 ). The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a role in plant responses to environmental stresses, and ABA applications decrease water loss and enhance drought tolerance

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Steven J. McArtney, Suzanne R. Abrams, Derek D. Woolard, and Peter D. Petracek

′-methyl group to 8′-hydroxy ABA, which is itself further cyclized to biologically inactive phasic acid ( Balsevich et al., 1994 ). This reaction is catalyzed by ABA 8′ hydroxylase, a cytochrome P450 monoxygenase ( Krochko et al., 1998 ). It has been

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M. Elizabeth Rutledge, John Frampton, Gary Blank, and L. Eric Hinesley

and McKinley, 1999 ). Sucker-Stopper RTU (SS-RTU) [1.15% ethyl 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA); Lawn and Garden Products, Inc., Fresno, CA] is used to reduce or prevent the growth of sprouts and suckers on various woody plants. Naturally occurring

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Seth DeBolt, Renata Ristic, Patrick G. Iland, and Christopher M. Ford

between light exposure and organic acid biosynthesis by both immature and mature berries has been reported ( DeBolt et al., 2006 , 2007 ; Kliewer and Schultz, 1964 ) and showed that full sun exposure resulted in maximum levels of tartaric acid formation