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Matthew Arrington, Mateus S. Pasa, and Todd C. Einhorn

auxin naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and its amide (NAD) also thin pears although results have been variable ( Asín et al., 2009 ; Theron et al., 2011 ; Wertheim, 2000 ) and adverse effects such as induced premature ripening and reduced storage life of

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Shi-Lin Tian, Li Li, Yue-Qin Tian, S.N.M. Shah, and Zhen-Hui Gong

fruit abscission, rotting, and wrinkling. Fig. 1. The effect of different concentrations of abscisic acid [ABA (900, 600, 300, 150, and 100 mg·L −1 )] on capsanthin accumulation in pepper fruit. Treatment was performed at the green mature stage (25 d

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Alexander D. Pavlista, Dipak K. Santra, James A. Schild, and Gary W. Hergert

promote stem growth was known since the 1930s when a rice disease was identified to be the result of a pathogenic fungus Gibberella fujikuroi ( Takahashi et al., 1991 ). Since then, there have been more than 130 gibberellins identified. Gibberellic acid

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Torrance R. Schmidt, Don C. Elfving, James R. McFerson, and Matthew D. Whiting

Biennial bearing is a major problem for apple producers, who need new options to manage cropping and to ensure consistent yields of high-quality fruit. Flowering promoters such as Ethephon or naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) are widely used in the

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Yi Zhang and Imed Dami

15-L back sprayer (Model SP0; SP System LLC, Santa Monica, CA) averaging a spray volume of 0.5 L per vine. Abscisic acid phytotoxicity. The phytotoxicity of ABA application was evaluated on leaves and clusters. Visual observation of leaf damage

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Sanalkumar Krishnan, Kevin Laskowski, Vijaya Shukla, and Emily B. Merewitz

species. Therefore, evaluating the function of plant metabolites such as GABA that may promote the drought tolerance of perennial ryegrass and other turfgrasses is needed. GABA is a four-carbon non-protein amino acid conserved from prokaryotes to

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Nicole L. Waterland, Craig A. Campbell, John J. Finer, and Michelle L. Jones

cause of postproduction decline in greenhouse crops ( Barrett and Campbell, 2006 ). The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a role in plant responses to environmental stresses, and ABA applications decrease water loss and enhance drought tolerance

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Steven J. McArtney, Suzanne R. Abrams, Derek D. Woolard, and Peter D. Petracek

′-methyl group to 8′-hydroxy ABA, which is itself further cyclized to biologically inactive phasic acid ( Balsevich et al., 1994 ). This reaction is catalyzed by ABA 8′ hydroxylase, a cytochrome P450 monoxygenase ( Krochko et al., 1998 ). It has been

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Shiow Y. Wang, Gene J. Galletta, Mary J. Camp, and Michael J. Kasperbauer

The influence of mulch types (black polyethylene, red polyethylene, and straw-vetch in raised bed hill culture) on the chemical composition of `Northeaster' and `Primetime' strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.) fruit and plant parts was evaluated. Ascorbic acid (AA), malic acid, citric acid, and ellagic acid levels were higher in `Primetime' than in `Northeaster' fruits, while `Northeaster' had a higher soluble solids content (SSC). Fruit grown on straw-vetch had lower SSC than did those grown on the polyethylene mulches. The AA content in the fruit of either cultivar was not affected by the mulch treatment. Fruit grown on the straw-vetch mulch had less red surface and flesh color but higher pigment intensity than fruit grown on the polyethylene mulches. Strawberry plants grown on straw-vetch mulch had the largest leaf area and the highest chlorophyll content, while plants grown on red polyethylene mulch had the smallest leaf area and lowest chlorophyll content. There were significant mulch × cultivar interactions in fruit titratable acid (TA) and AA levels, sugars, citric and ellagic acid contents, leaf area and chlorophyll levels, and soluble carbohydrate and starch contents in leaves, petioles, crowns, crown-roots, and roots. TA was highest in `Northeaster' fruit when grown on red polyethylene, whereas TA was highest in `Primetime' fruit when grown on straw-vetch. The highest fruit citric acid levels were found in straw-vetch mulched plots of `Northeaster', and in black polyethylene mulched plots of `Primetime'. Ellagic acid accumulation was highest in `Northeaster' fruit grown on black polyethylene, and in `Primetime' fruit grown on red polyethylene or straw-vetch mulches. Fruit glucose content was highest in `Northeaster', but lowest in `Primetime', when grown on the straw-vetch mulch. There was a general tendency for soluble carbohydrate and starch levels in plant tissues to be lowest when the plants were grown in red polyethylene mulch and highest when grown in black polyethylene mulch. `Primetime' contained higher total carbohydrate levels than did `Northeaster' in all tissues tested.

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M. Elizabeth Rutledge, John Frampton, Gary Blank, and L. Eric Hinesley

and McKinley, 1999 ). Sucker-Stopper RTU (SS-RTU) [1.15% ethyl 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA); Lawn and Garden Products, Inc., Fresno, CA] is used to reduce or prevent the growth of sprouts and suckers on various woody plants. Naturally occurring