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Kurt Steinke, David R. Chalmers, Richard H. White, Charles H. Fontanier, James C. Thomas, and Benjamin G. Wherley

cultivars of st. augustinegrass ( Stenotaphrum secundatum sp.) (‘Amerishade’, ‘Common’, ‘Delmar’, ‘Floratam’, ‘Palmetto’, ‘Raleigh’, and ‘Sapphire’); and nine cultivars of zoysiagrass ( Zoysia japonica Steud.) (‘El Toro’, ‘Emerald’, ‘Empire’, ‘Jamur’, and

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Songul Severmutlu, Nedim Mutlu, Ercan Gurbuz, Osman Gulsen, Murat Hocagil, Osman Karaguzel, Tiffany Heng-Moss, Robert C. Shearman, and Rock E. Gaussoin

. No. 45. Amer. Soc. Agron., Crop Sci. Soc. Amer., Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Madison, WI Huang, B. 1999 Water relations and root activities of Buchloe dactyloides and Zoysia japonica in response to localized soil drying Plant Soil 208 179 186 Huang, B

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John E. Erickson and Kevin E. Kenworthy

environments. Therefore, the objectives of the current study were to evaluate the effects of N fertilization and light environment on relations among growth, carbon assimilation, water use, and WUE of two coarse-textured Zoysia japonica Steud. genotypes

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Qi Zhang, Kevin Rue, and Jeanna Mueller

were included in this study: four cool-season grasses, ‘Stonewall’ tall fescue ( Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) (TF), ‘L-93’ CB, ‘Kenblue’ KB, and ‘Zoom’ PR, and two warm-season grasses, ‘Zenith’ zoysiagrass ( Zoysia japonica Steud.) (ZOY) and ‘Riviera

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Marco Schiavon, Brent D. Barnes, David A. Shaw, J. Michael Henry, and James H. Baird

, while rates for cool-season turfgrasses typically range between 4 and 13 mm·d −1 ( Kenna, 2008 ). In Texas, tall fescue can use up to 47% more water than zoysiagrass [ Zoysia japonica ( Kim, 1983 )]. Transitioning from cool-season to warm-season turf

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Reagan W. Hejl, Benjamin G. Wherley, and Charles H. Fontanier

use in the study: ‘Riley’s Super Sport’ (Celebration ® ) bermudagrass [ Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.], ‘Palisades’ zoysiagrass ( Zoysia japonica Steud.), ‘Floratam’ st. augustinegrass [ Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntze], and ‘SeaStar’ seashore

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D. W. Jackson, K. J. Vessels, and D. A. Potter

Abstract

Three genetically diverse Kentucky bluegrasses (Poa pratensis L. cvs. Kenblue, Vantage, and Adelphi) and 6 other turfgrasses were evaluated for susceptibility to the greenbug, Schizaphis graminum Rondani. Nine common lawn weed species were also tested as potential alternative hosts. Heavy greenbug populations and feeding damage occurred on all 3 bluegrasses and on tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. cv. Kentucky 31) and chewings fescue (Festuca rubra var. cummutata Guad. cv. Jamestown). Creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds. cv. Penncross), bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L. cv. Midiron), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. cv. Derby), and zoysia grass (Zoysia japonica Steud. cv. Meyer) were not suitable hosts. No greenbugs survived on the 9 weed species tested.

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Jinmin Fu, Jack Fry, and Bingru Huang

Water requirements for `Meyer' zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud., hereafter referred to as zoysia), `Midlawn' bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. × C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy, hereafter referred to as bermuda], `Falcon II' tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and `Brilliant' kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L., hereafter referred to as bluegrass) were evaluated under a mobile rainout shelter at deficit irrigation levels of 20% to 100% of actual evapotranspiration (ETa), applied twice weekly, between June and September 2001 and 2002. Soil was a river-deposited silt loam (fine, montmorillonitic, mesic Aquic Arquidolls). Minimum annual irrigation amounts required to maintain quality ranged from 244 mm for bermuda to 552 mm for bluegrass. Turfgrass species and respective irrigation levels (% of ETa) at which season-long acceptable turf quality was maintained in each year were bluegrass, 100% (evaluated 2001 only); tall fescue, 60% in 2001 and 80% in 2002; bermuda, 60% in both years; and zoysia, 80% in both years. A landscape manager who could tolerate one week of less-than-acceptable quality could have irrigated tall fescue at 40% ETa (224 mm) in 2001 and 60% ETa (359 mm) in 2002. Likewise, bermuda exhibited unacceptable quality on only one September rating date when irrigated at 40% ETa (163 mm) in 2001. Bermuda was able to tolerate a lower leaf relative water content (LRWC) and higher level of leaf electrolyte leakage (EL) compared to other grasses before quality declined to an unacceptable level.

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James N. McCrimmon

Limited information is available concerning the mineral nutrient content of different turfgrass species. There is a need to develop sufficiency ranges for turfgrasses under various management programs. The nutrient concentration of a turfgrass provides an indication of the nutrient status and quality of the turf. A study was conducted to assess the mineral nutrient composition of selected turfgrass species and cultivars. Plant tissue samples of the following turfgrasses were collected: creeping bentgrass, Agrostis palustris Huds. `Penncross'; bermudagrass, Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. `NuMex Sahara', `Santa Ana', `Texturf 10', and Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. × Cynodon transvaalensis Burtt-Davy `Tifgreen', `Tifway'; perennial ryegrass, Lolium perenne L. `Medalist × Blend'; St. Augustinegrass Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntze `Seville'; and zoysiagrass, Zoysia japonica Steud. `El Toro' and Zoysia japonica × Zoysia tenuifolia Willd. ex Trin. `Emerald'. Three samples of each cultivar were collected, washed with deionized water for 30 s, and dried in a forced-air oven at 70°C for 72 hr. Plant samples were analyzed for both macronutrient and micronutrient concentration. For the bermudagrass cultivars, the concentrations of potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) were less than 20.0 g·kg-1 and 2.0 g·kg–1, respectively, and less than known sufficiency levels. `Tifway' and `Texturf 10' had lower nitrogen (N) concentrations than other bermudagrasses. `Penncross' and `Medalist X' had the highest N concentrations. Zoysiagrass had low concentrations of N, phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca), K, and Mg. The concentration of copper (Cu) was low for zoysiagrass and three bermudagrass cultivars (`Texturf 10', `Tifgreen', and `Tifway'). There were differences among the turfgrasses for manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) concentrations.

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Edward W. Bush, James N. McCrimmon, and Allen D. Owings

Four warm-season grass species [common carpetgrass (Axonopus affinis Chase), common bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [L.] Pers.), St. Augustinegrass (Stenophrum secondatum Walt. Kuntze.), and zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.)] were established in containers filled with an Olivia silt loam soil for 12 weeks. Grasses were maintained weekly at 5 cm prior to the start of the experiment. Water stress treatments consisted of a control (field capacity), waterlogged, and flooded treatments. Waterlogging and flood treatments were imposed for a period of 90 days. The effects of water stress was dependent on grass species. Bermudagrass vegetative growth and turf quality were significantly reduced when flooded. Carpetgrass, St. Augustingrass, and zoysiagrass quality and vegetative growth were also reduced by flooding. St. Augustinegrass and zoysiagrass root dry weight was significantly decreased. Zoysiagrass plants did not survive 90 days of flooding. Leaf tissue analysis for common carpetgrass, common bermudagrass, St. Augustinegrass, and zoysiagrass indicated that plants subjected to waterlogging and flooding had significantly elevated Zn concentrations.