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Luiz A. Biasi and Patrick J. Conner

grape ( Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) selections from the University of Georgia (USA) breeding program Acta Hort. 1046 303 307 Dearing, C. 1917 The production of self-fertile muscadine grapes Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 14 30 34 Dearing, C. 1938 Muscadine

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Danny Hillin, Pierre Helwi, and Justin J. Scheiner

Walker, 2008 ). Muscadines ( Vitis rotundifolia ) represent a species of grape native to the southern United States from Texas to Delaware. Unlike bunch grapes, which have 38 somatic chromosomes, muscadines have 40 chromosomes, and graft incompatibility

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Jorge A. Cardona, Allen F. Wysocki, and Stephen T. Talcott

, L. 2005 Nutraceuticals and functional foods Food Technol. 59 65 67 Monagas, M. Hernández-Ledesma, B. Gómez-Cordovés, C. Bartolomé, B. 2006 Commercial dietary ingredients from Vitis vinifera L. leaves and grape skins: Antioxidant and chemical

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Molly Felts, Renee T. Threlfall, John R. Clark, and Margaret L. Worthington

Evaluation of physiochemical and storability attributes of muscadine grapes ( Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) HortScience 50 104 111 Barchenger, D.W. Clark, J.R. Threlfall, R.T. Howard, L.R. Brownmiller, C.R. 2015b Nutraceutical changes in muscadine grape and

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Fouad M. Basiouny

Malonic acid, 3(3,4 dichlorophenyl)–1, 1 dimethyurea, Gibberellic acid, and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxypropionic acid were applied to muscadine grapes (Vitis rotundifolia Michx) during maturation and ripening. Total soluble solids, sugars, anthocyanin contents, and other fruit qualities were affected. 3(3,4 dichlorophenyl)–1, 1 dimethylurea (diuron) seemed to induce better and different effects than the other chemicals.

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James K. Mitchell, W. Keith Patterson, and Robert H. Ford

European Vitis vinifera L. (four cultivars); interspecific hybrid (seven cultivars); and American V. aestivalis Michx. (one cultivar), V. labrusca L. (three cultivars), and V. rotundifolia Michx. (two cultivars) grapevines were tested for susceptibility to septoria leaf spot disease. V. rotundifolia cultivars Cowart and Fry exhibited hypersensitive-type resistance. All other American, European, and hybrid cultivars tested were susceptible with varying levels of disease severity. Cultivars with little (e.g., interspecific hybrid) or no (e.g., European) V. labrusca L. heritage were more susceptible to septoria leaf spot than American V. labrusca cultivars.

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James K. Mitchell, Robert H. Ford, and W. Keith Patterson

European Vitis vinifera L. (four cultivars); interspecific hybrid (seven cultivars); and American V. aestivalis Michx. (one cultivar), V. labrusca L. (three cultivars), and V. rotundifolia Michx. (two cultivars) grapevines were tested for susceptibility to Septoria leaf spot disease. V. rotundifolia cultivars Cowart and Fry exhibited hypersensitive-type resistance. All other American, European, and hybrid cultivars tested were susceptible with varying levels of disease severity. Cultivars with little (e.g. interspecific hybrid) or no (e.g. European) V. labrusca L. heritage were more susceptible to Septoria leaf spot than American V. labrusca cultivars.

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J. Chen and O. Lamikanra

Angular leaf spot is a common but rarely studied disease of muscadine grapes (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) in the southeastern United States. During 1994 and 1995, we performed two field evaluations of angular leaf spot on 30 muscadine cultivars. Based on disease severity data, no cultivar was immune to angular leaf spot; however, `Albermarle', `Doreen', `Higgins', `Noble', `Regale', `Scuppernong', `Southland', and `Summit' showed high degrees of resistance. `Alachua', `Darlene', `Dixie Red', `GA-3-9-2', `Jane Bell', `Janet', `Jumbo', `Pam', and `Rosa' were susceptible.

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Jiang Lu and Bernard Prins

The grape belongs to the genus Vitis L., which are divided into two subgenera, Euvitis Planch. and Muscadinia Planch. The Euvitis has 50 to 70 species, in which V. vinifera L. is a predominant species with hundreds of known commercial cultivars grown world wide. The Muscadinia (muscadine grapes) consists of only two to three species predominated by V. rotundifolia and only commercially cultivated in the southeastern United States. V. rotundifolia is known by its multiple resistance to almost all grape diseases and insects found on the Euvitis species, while the latter possesses good fruit characteristics that do not exist in muscadines. Attempts to produce rotundifolia-vinifera hybrids to combine good fruit quality and disease resistance of both into F1 hybrids have been made by grape breeders for many years. Limited success was reported when the V. vinifera was used as seed parents. This research extended the interspecific crosses beyond V. vinifera into other Euvitis species. Among the Euvitis species, A. aestivalis, V. cinerea, V. champinii, V. labrusca, V. monticola, V. nesbittiana, V. riparia, V. rupestris, V. thunbergii, V. quinguangularis, all with pistillate flowers, were used as female parents pollinated with V. rotundifolia pollen. Eight out of the 10 cross combinations except V. cinerea and V. thunbergii set fruits. However, most of the Euvitis-rotundifolia crosses had extremely low fruits set (<1% of pollinated flowers). The only exception was V. labrusca cv. Woodruff, which had very high percentage of fruit set (70%). Interestingly, the fruits of V. labrusca cv. Woodruff × rotundifolia were pathonocarpic that had only half size of regular fruits set from open pollination with pollen sources from other Euvitis species. In the reciprocal crosses, three pistillate V. rotundifolia cultivars, `Fry', `Higgins', `Jumbo', were used as female pollinated by pollen from Euvitis species. Limited fruit sets were found from the crosses of V. rotundifolia × V. shuttleworthii, V. cordifolia, V. rupestris, V. Piasezkii, V. quinquagularis. Results from this study indicated that hybridization between Euvitis and muscadinia species is indeed very difficult but it is possible, and some Euvitis species are cross more compatible with V. rotundifolia than the others.

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John R. Clark and Paula Watson

Eleven muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) cultivars were evaluated in Nov. and Dec. 1994 and Jan. and Feb. 1995 for primary bud hardiness using differential thermal analysis. Vines sampled were located at the University of Arkansas Fruit Substation, Clarkeville. Data analysis indicated a significant date × cultivar interaction for mean low temperature exotherm (LTE). Mean LTE decreased for all cultivars during the sampling period. Hardier cultivars for November and December were `Sterling' and `Summit'; for January, `Nesbitt', `Summit', `Carlos', and `Sterling'; and for February, `Sugargate', `Carlos', and `Summit'. The minimum LTE for any cultivar was – 23.8C for `Sugargate' during February.