Big vein (BV) disease of lettuce is caused by soil borne fungal vectored viruses, and reduces marketability through head deformation. Tolerant cultivars reduce BV frequency, but no resistant cultivars exist. L. virosa L. is highly resistance. The objectives were to 1) determine if L. virosa P.I.s exhibit variation for resistance, and 2) determine if resistance is transferable to lettuce. Seedlings were inoculated with root macerate of BV infected plants, transplanted to BV infested soil, and greenhouse grown for 3 months. Twelve plants in each of 1,2, or 3 reps of Great Lakes 65 (GL65-susceptible), Pavane (Pav-tolerant), L. virosa (11 accessions), and BC1 F2 through F5 families of lettuce cultivars x L. virosa accession IVT280 were tested. The percentage of BV afflicted plants was recorded. In hybrid families, BV free plants from tolerant families were selected and advanced. No BV was found in L. virosa. Variation for tolerance was observed in BC1 F2 and F3 families; 33% had greater tolerance than Pav (17% afflicted). Additional tests identified 11 BC1 F3 families (14%) with greater tolerance than Pav (42% afflicted). Subsequent BC1 F4 and F5 generations however, were more susceptible than Pav. Lactuca virosa is highly resistant, but resistance did not transfer to hybrid progeny. Variation for tolerance was observed in BC1 F2 and F3 families, but later generations were susceptible. Interactions or linkage of genes for developmental processes and BV resistance may hinder introgression. Introgression will continue using congruity backcrossing and a greater diversity of L. virosa.
Ryan J. Hayes*, Ed Ryder, and Bert Robinson
Jennifer A. Gargiulo, Russell T. Nagata, and Thomas A. Bewick
An-assay was developed to determine the level of resistance to the herbicide glyphosate in trangenic seedlings of lettuce. Results of the seedling assay were correlated to results of a similar assay using callus lines of the identical transgenic plants. Transgenic plants were found to be a 32-fold increase in tolerance to glyphosate when compared to wild type plants. This was similar to the response of these transgenic lines in the callus line assay.
Puffy Soundy, D.J. Cantliffe, G.J. Hochmuth, and P.J. Stoffella
`South Bay' lettuce transplants were grown in F392A styrofoam Speedling® flats at different levels of N to evaluate the effect of N on transplant quality and subsequent yield and head quality in the field. Plants were irrigated eight times over a 4-week growing period by floating flats for 30 min in nutrient solution containing eight 0, 15, 39, 45, or 60 mg·liter–1 N supplied from NH4NO3. Dry shoot mass, leaf area, and plant height increased linearly with increasing N rates and dry root mass and stem diameter increased in a quadratic fashion. Transplants with the greatest plant biomass were, therefore, produced with 60 mg·liter–1 N. Plants from the 15, 30, 45 and 60 mg·liter–1 N treatments were planted in sandy soil in plastic-mulched beds under drip irrigation. To optimize lettuce head maturity among the treatments, plants from the N treatments were harvest 53, 56, and 59 days after transplanting (DAT). The optimum time to harvest was determined to be 56 DAT. There was no yield response (measured in terms of head mass) or quality response (measured in terms of head height, head diameter, head compactness or core length) to N applied during transplant production. This indicated that transplants produced with 15 mg·liter–1 N gave equally good yield to those produced with 30, 45, or 60 mg·liter–1 N when N was applied via flotation irrigation.
Rebecca Grube and Edward Ryder
Incidence of the disease lettuce drop caused by Sclerotinia minor is often high in California lettuce fields despite the use of cultural and chemical controls. Development of resistant lettuce cultivars has been hindered by the difficulty of evaluating resistance in field tests and the lack of a screening procedure that reliably predicts field performance. Several lettuce genotypes of diverse geographic origin and plant architecture including modern and heirloom cultivars, plant introduction accessions, and breeding lines, were evaluated for resistance to S. minor using several methods. Resistance was evaluated in fields that contained naturally occurring S. minor, in a field that contained both naturally occurring and manually incorporated S. minor inoculum, and in the greenhouse using two types of inocula. Many genotypes exhibited partial resistance to S. minor, with significantly reduced disease incidence relative to susceptible controls. The similarity of disease ratings observed in replicated field tests supports the conclusion that partial resistance is under genetic control. Ratings obtained in some greenhouse tests were highly correlated with field ratings, but this was not true for all tests. Therefore, although greenhouse evaluation with adequate replication and repetition can be used as a selection tool, field testing remains an essential component of S. minor resistance breeding programs.
Samuel Contreras, David Tay, and Mark A. Bennett
Among the factors affecting germinability of a seed lot are the environmental conditions under which the seeds are produced. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of temperature during seed development on seed quality of two Asteraceae species. Seeds of lettuce cv. Tango and Helianthus debilis cv. Vanilla Ice and sp. cucumerifolius were produced in a greenhouse under one of two treatments: i) hot (27, 40, and 20 °C temperatures average, max, and min, respectively), and ii) cool (23, 33, and 18 °C temperatures average, max, and min, respectively). In both species, heavier seeds were produced under the cool conditions and no differences were observed in standard germination. In lettuce, germination percentage and rate were both affected by increased levels of exogenous ABA concentrations and reduced water potential (PEG solutions), and, in both cases, seeds from cool treatments were more affected. Germination at 30 °C and constant light was higher for seeds from the hot treatment. Lettuce seed showed a strong light requirement for germination. However, seeds from the hot treatment gave better dark germination at 13 and 19 °C. Seeds of H. debilis did not required light for germination, and the germination percentage and rates were evaluated at 13, 21, and 29 °C. For both lines, seeds from each treatment behave similarly; however, the germination of H. debilis cv. Vanilla Ice at 29 °C was higher when seeds were produced in the hot conditions. The results showed that temperature during seed development affected aspects of seed quality that are not detectable by the standard germination, but by germination at suboptimal conditions. Within the Asteraceae family, differences varied among and within species.
D. A. Martens and C. Sanchez
Incorporation of specific vitamins such as thiamin to the rooting media has been reported to stimulate root and shoot growth. Thiamin is involved in the Kreps cycle decarboxylation of pyruvate to citrate as a coenzyme in the pyruvate decarboxylase enzyme complex. Axenic and soil glasshouse studies were conducted to determine the tissue nutrient concentrations (ICP analysis), especially Ca, in response to low application rates of thiamin. In a 50 d axenic “Grand Rapids” lettuce study, thiamin (5 mg mL-1 0.5 N Hoagland's) stimulated shoot length (25%), root length (23%), Ca (8%), K (14%), and P uptake (18%) compared with control values (no thiamin added). Soil glasshouse “Grand Rapids” lettuce studies showed that thiamin (6 mg kg-1 soil) stimulated N (72%), Ca (58%). K (12%), and P uptake (11%) compared with control values. Additional glasshouse-soil-thiamin form studies with “Black seeded Simpson” lettuce (20 mg each form kg-i soil) showed thiamin compounds increased Ca tissue levels from 3 to 10% and organic C content from 5 to 30%. The prospect of using these compounds to reduce tipburn in lettuce is being investigated in follow-up studies.
Aparna Gazula*, Matthew D. Kleinhenz, Joseph C. Scheerens, Peter P. Ling, and John G. Streeter
Anthocyanins (Antho) are the source of red color in plants and the intensity of redness is an important quality parameter in red leaf lettuce. Despite the importance of Antho in leaf lettuce, little information is available regarding the effects of major production-related factors, such as planting date, on their levels. To address this issue, field studies were conducted in 2002 and 2003 in which Antho levels were measured in nine lettuce varieties planted in early and late summer (ES and LS, respectively) using a RCB design. Leaf tissue was sampled 30 d after transplanting. Data for three strongly related Lolla Rossa-type varieties (`Lotto', `Valeria', `Impuls') are reported here. The planting date × variety interaction was significant; however, Antho concentrations were higher following planting in LS than ES, regardless of variety. Planting date effects were more pronounced in 2002, when differences in average daily temperature between ES and LS plantings tended to be larger. Regardless of planting date and year, Antho levels followed the pattern `Impuls' (three genes) > `Valeria' (two genes) > `Lotto' (one gene). Correlations between human visual and two types of instrumented assessments of color are being tested in samples from the same study.
Greenhouse experiments were conducted in the Dominican Republic to determine the effect of methanol and nitrogen (N) on the yield of `Black Seeded Simpson' lettuce. Plants were individually grown in plastic containers filled with loamy soil and treated with combinations of methanol, folcysteine. N rates (70, 105, 140, and 175 kg/ha) were applied at planting, and aqueous solutions of either ethanol or methanol (0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%) were applied as a foliar spray when the plants had five true leaves. Plants were harvested 50 days after planting. There were no significant effects of ethanol or methanol on lettuce yield. Lettuce yield was significantly influenced by N rates, with yield increasing as N rates were higher.
James W. Shrefler, William M. Stall, and Joan A. Dusky
Three field studies on high-organic-matter soils were conducted to determine the zone of influence of spiny amaranth on lettuce head quality. Spiny amaranth reduced lettuce head firmness at all distances from the weed, ≤105 cm. Lettuce ribbiness increased at 15 and 45 cm compared with the weed-free control. Untrimmed lettuce head weight was not affected by spiny amaranth presence beyond 45 cm. Trimmed lettuce head weight was reduced at all distances compared with the control. Stem diameter and core length were not affected by spiny amaranth competition. The presence of a single spiny amaranth plant significantly influenced some lettuce quality traits at ≤105 cm.
Louis N. Bass
Lactuca sativa seed, cvs. ‘Imperial 847’, ‘Imperial 456’, ‘Imperial 44’, ‘Fulton’, and ‘Oswego’ were stored at a wide range of temperature and relative humidity, to determine their effect upon development of red cotyledons (physiological necrosis).
Red cotyledons did not develop equally (rate or amount) in seeds of all cultivars at any given storage condition. More red cotyledons developed at a low than at a high relative humidity at the same temperature. However, longer storage at the low relative humidity was required before red cotyledons developed.
Storage at −12°C/70% relative humidity prevented red cotyledon development in all cultivars tested for 210 weeks. Storage at 10/90, 10/70, 4/35 and −1/40 prevented red cotyledon development in all cultivars for 157 weeks and in some cultivars for 210 weeks.