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Y.L. Qian and M.C. Engelke

Determining the appropriate level of irrigation for turfgrasses is vital to the health of the turfgrass and the conservation of water. The linear gradient irrigation system (LGIS) allows long-term assessment of turf performance under continuous irrigation gradients from excess to no irrigation. The objectives of this study were to: 1) evaluate the minimum irrigation requirements and relative drought resistance of `Rebel II' tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), `Meyer' zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.), `Tifway' bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.], `Prairie' buffalograss [Buchloe dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm], and `Nortam' St. Augustinegrass [Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntze]; and 2) evaluate the long-term effects of irrigation levels on turf persistence, weed invasion, and disease incidence for the five selected turfgrasses under field conditions. Turf was sodded under LGIS with an irrigation gradient ranging from 120% Class A pan evaporation (Ep) to natural precipitation, along a 20-m turf area. Evaluation during the summers of 1993–96 indicated that grasses differed in drought resistance and persistence under variable irrigation regimes. Irrigation (Ep) required to maintain acceptable turf quality for respective grasses was `Rebel II' (67%), `Meyer' (68%), `Nortam' (44%), `Tifway' (35%), and `Prairie' (26%). Higher dollar spot (Sclerotinia homoeocarpa Bennett) infection was observed at 115% Ep irrigation regime in `Tifway' bermudagrass, whereas gray leaf spot [Pyricularia grisea (Hebert) Barr] was observed only at 10% Ep irrigation regime in St. Augustinegrass plots. An outbreak of brown patch (Rhizoctonia solani Kuehn.) occurred in Sept. 1996 in St. Augustinegrass plots receiving irrigation at >80% Ep.

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Josep Padullés Cubino, Josep Vila Subirós, and Carles Barriocanal Lozano

overwatered ( Salvador et al., 2011 ). However, in the metropolitan region of Barcelona, Domene and Saurí (2003) reported opposing data, where it was observed that garden irrigation generally did not meet plant watering requirements. These conflicting

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Stefan Sutherin, Kevin Lombard, and Rolston St. Hilaire

type, water requirement, animal/pest attractions, and a general description. We selected NMSU Learning Games Laboratory, as the vendor–developer because of our history of collaboration and their competitive development fee. We did a cost

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Clinton C. Shock, Erik B.G. Feibert, Alicia Rivera, Lamont D. Saunders, Nancy Shaw, and Francis F. Kilkenny

estimate of the optimal irrigation requirement for maximum seed production of E. umbellatum , but addition of the earlier fall and winter increments of precipitation increased the variation in the estimated optimal water requirement ( Table 5 ). Seed

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Giovanni Piccinni, Jonghan Ko, Thomas Marek, and Daniel I. Leskovar

estimated that ≈62 million to 74 million m 3 of groundwater could be conserved each year by implementing proper irrigation techniques and scheduling. To optimize irrigation events, crop water requirements throughout the growing season must first be

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Richard Martinson, John Lambrinos, and Ricardo Mata-González

Service, 2006 ). All four species are associated with dry habitats and are occasionally used as ornamentals with low water requirements ( CalFlora, 2018 ). All plants were propagated locally from propagules collected within the same East Cascades ecoregion

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Brent Rowell and Mar Lar Soe

not think drip could provide as much water as traditional sprinkler cans). Our installation team discussed current and future crop water requirements with farmers who were trying drip, often explaining how equal amounts of water could be applied with

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Michael R. Evans, Andrew K. Koeser, Guihong Bi, Susmitha Nambuthiri, Robert Geneve, Sarah Taylor Lovell, and J. Ryan Stewart

in shuttle trays reduced the water requirement particularly for dairy manure, wood fiber, peat, coconut fiber, straw, and the sleeve containers ( Table 2 ). The significant interaction terms appeared to reflect the magnitude of watering reduction

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Richard C. Beeson Jr. and Jianjun Chen

nutrient leaching ( Chen et al., 2001 ). This holds true in bromeliad production, where daily water requirements have not been quantified for any bromeliad species. To increase irrigation efficiency, Beeson (2004) proposed a canopy closure model for

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Esmaeil Fallahi, Denise Neilsen, Gerry H. Neilsen, Bahar Fallahi, and Bahman Shafii

requirement. At the beginning of each season (approximately mid-May), the soil profile was watered to saturation in all irrigation systems. After the initial irrigation, water requirements were determined by calculating ETc (crop evapotranspiration) where ETc