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Bernard A. Kratky

A simple, capillary, non-circulating hydroponic method is described. Lettuce seedlings are transplanted into 218-mm-long plastic tubes containing 160 ml of growing medium and the bottom 25 mm is submerged into a tank of nutrient solution. No additional fertilization, watering, or monitoring is required from transplanting until harvesting. Although the nutrient solution level may drop below the bottoms of the tubes, the roots continue to take up adequate water and nutrients to sustain growth. This method does not require pumps or electrical power. `Green Ice' leaf lettuce produced 24% more salable yield growing with this method than comparable plants growing in conventional soil culture.

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Jingjing Yin, Nina L. Bassuk, Madeline W. Olberg, and Taryn L. Bauerle

Survivorship of high-quality landscape field-grown trees is a particular challenge as a result of differences in post-transplant recovery between species. During bare-root tree transplanting, a major part of the root system is severed, the tree is

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Amber N. Bates, Gerald M. Henry, and Cynthia B. McKenney

germination, hooker’s evening primrose must first be propagated in the greenhouse and transplanted into the field following maturation to the rosette stage ( Murphy et al., 1999 ). The presence of weeds in agricultural fields often increases the time and costs

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M. Lenny Wells

Establishing a pecan orchard can be an expensive and challenging endeavor. Eight years or more after transplant may be required for some cultivars to produce a harvestable yield. Rising input costs associated with fuel and fertilizer prices require

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V.M. Russo

The efficacy of using potting media and fertilizers that are alternatives to conventional materials to produce vegetable transplants needs clarification. Bell pepper, onion and watermelon seed were sown in Container Mix, Lawn and Garden Soil, and Potting Soil, which can be used for organic production in greenhouse transplant production. The alternative media were amended with a 1× rate of Sea Tea liquid fertilizer. Comparisons were made to a system using a conventional potting medium, Reddi-Earth, fertilized with a half-strength (0.5×) rate of a soluble synthetic fertilizer (Peters). Watermelon, bell pepper and onion seedlings were lifted at 3, 6, and 8 weeks, respectively, and heights and dry weights determined. Watermelon were sufficiently vigorous for transplanting regardless of which medium and fertilizer was used. Bell pepper and onion at the scheduled lifting were sufficiently vigorous only if produced with conventional materials. Additional experiments were designed to determine the reason(s) for the weaker seedlings when the alternative products were used. Seedlings maintained in transplant trays, in which media amended weekly with Sea Tea were required to be held for up to an additional 34 days before being vigorous enough for transplanting. Six-week-old bell pepper, or 8-week-old onion, seedlings were transferred to Reddi-Earth in pots and supplied with Sea Tea or Peters fertilizer. Bell pepper treated with Peters were taller and heavier, but onions plants were similar in height and weight regardless of fertilizer used. Other pepper seed were planted in Reddi-Earth and fertilized weekly with Sea Tea at 0.5×, 1×, 2×, or 4× the recommended rate, or the 0.5× rate of Peters. There was a positive linear relationship between seedling height and dry weight for seedlings treated with increasing rates of Sea Tea. Other pepper seed were planted in to Potting Soil, or an organically certified potting medium (Sunshine), and fertilized with a 2× or 4× rate of Sea Tea or a 1×, 2×, or 4× rate of an organic fertilizer (Rocket Fuel), or in Reddi-Earth fertilized with a 0.5× rate of Peters. There was a positive linear relationship between the rate of Rocket Fuel and heights and dry weights of bell pepper seedlings. However, even at the highest rate seedlings were not equivalent to those produced with conventional practices. Plants treated with the 4× rate of Sea Tea were similar to those produced using conventional materials. Use of Sunshine potting medium and the 4× rate of Sea Tea will produce bell pepper seedlings equivalent in height and dry weight to those produced using conventional materials. The 4× rate of Rocket Fuel used in Sunshine potting medium will produce adequate bell pepper seedlings. The original poor showing of seedlings in the alternative potting media appears to be due to fertilization with Sea Tea at a rate that does not adequately support seedling development.

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Abby B. Griffin, Amy N. Wright, Kenneth M. Tilt, and D. Joseph Eakes

Water is considered the most limiting factor in newly transplanted container plants ( Costello and Paul, 1975 ; Scheiber et al., 2007 ), and the most common cause of death among recently transplanted container-grown plants is water stress

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Valérie Gravel, Martine Dorais, and Claudine Ménard

system as a result of high investment, high-quality transplants are required. Greenhouse transplants should have a good developmental balance between shoot and roots, high water use efficiency, and a high content of reserves that can be used in the first

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Orville C. Baldos, Joseph DeFrank, and Glenn Sakamoto

: 1) tolerance of newly transplanted plugs to pre-emergence herbicides and 2) tolerance of established plants to postemergence herbicides. The Kahoolawe seashore dropseed germplasm (no. 9079745) used for both studies was obtained from the Natural

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Yuqi Li and Neil S. Mattson

no reports on the growth of petunia transplants in response to different commercially available substrates and their interaction with fertilizer regime. The objective of this study was to evaluate petunia growth and flowering in response to different

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Martin Makgose Maboko and Christian Phillipus Du Plooy

Direct seeding of hydroponically grown tomatoes ( Solanum lycorpersicum ) is not a common practice in South Africa, and most growers use transplants. Seedlings for hydroponic production of fresh market tomatoes are commonly transplanted at 6 to 7