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Chad E. Finn, Brian M. Yorgey, Bernadine C. Strik, and Robert R. Martin

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Javier Fernandez-Salvador, Bernadine C. Strik, Yanyun Zhao, and Chad E. Finn

, Aurora, OR (n = 4). Total and marketable yield were affected by genotype but did not differ between the first and second fruiting seasons ( Table 5 ). By comparison, yield of ‘Marion’ trailing blackberry was greater after an “off year” (primocane growth

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Chad E. Finn, Brian M. Yorgey, Bernadine C. Strik, Harvey K. Hall, Robert R. Martin, and Michael Qian

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Chad E. Finn, Brian M. Yorgey, Bernadine C. Strik, Robert R. Martin, and Michael Qian

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B.M. Yorgey and C.E. Finn

The trailing blackberries (Rubus sp. L.), particularly `Marion', are the primary blackberries grown for the processing market and they are largely machine harvested. While `Marion' is well known for its processed fruit quality, particularly flavor, aroma, and perception of low seediness, it has spines (thorns) that can be dislodged when machine harvested and end up in the product. A primary goal of the USDA–ARS blackberry breeding program in Corvallis is the development of cultivars that are comparable to `Marion' in fruit quality but are spineless (thornless). Nine thornless selections were compared with four standard cultivars as individually quick-frozen (IQF) and puree products in a blind evaluation. Each sample was scored panelists from the blackberry industry and research program. IQF samples were scored for appearance, color, seediness, flavor, and overall quality by 21 panelists and purees were scored for color, flavor, aroma, and overall quality by 25 panelists. Both panels used a 9 point hedonic scale (1 = dislike extremely, 5 = neither like nor dislike, 9 = like extremely). With the exception of color, there were significant differences among all genotypes for all traits evaluated in the IQF and pureed products. ORUS 1380-1 was ranked similar to `Marion' and significantly better than `Waldo', in overall quality of the IQF product. In puree form, ORUS 1843-1 and ORUS 1843-3 had the highest ranking in overall quality, but were only both statistically different from ORUS 1489-2. For pureed product flavor, ORUS 1843-1 was the highest rated selection but was not statistically different from `Marion'. While ORUS 1843-1 and ORUS 1843-3 hold great promise, they are from a cross between wild collected Rubus ursinus Cham. & Schlt. and `Waldo' and as a result have some negative characteristics of the native species, particularly small fruit size. The puree quality of NZ 9128R-1, NZ 9351-4 and ORUS 1380-1 was similar to `Marion' and these genotypes offer promise as thornless replacements for `Marion'.

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Neil C. Bell, Bernadine C. Strik, and Lloyd Marti

Primocanes were cut at ground level at one-month intervals from late April to late July 1991 and 1992. An uncut control was included. Four canes per plant were trained either in August or the following February, the others being removed and measured. Yield data were collected and yield components measured in 1992 and 1993. Cane diameter, main cane length and branch cane length per plant generally declined with later suppression date. Consequently, yield per meter of cane declined with later suppression date. However, cane number and total plant main cane length were greater for all suppression treatments and percent budbreak increased with later suppression date. As a result, April- and May-suppressed plants had increased-yields compared to control plants in both 1992 and 1993, as did June-suppressed plants in 1993. August-trained plants had significantly higher yields than February-trained in both years, primarily because of increased budbreak. The basal section of canes was the most productive, because of increased budbreak and branch cane production.

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Jessica M. Cortell and Bernadine C. Strik

In Spring 1993 and 1994, mature trailing `Marion' blackberry (Rubus L. subgenus Rubus Watson) plants were pruned to 0, 4, 8, and 12 floricanes. In 1994, yield per cane was higher for plants with 4 floricanes compared to plants with 8 or 12 floricanes. In Summer 1993, there was a trend for lower primocane dry mass with a higher floricane number and a significant reduction in primocane branch dry mass with an increase in floricane number. Total plant, fruit, floricane, and lateral dry mass increased linearly with floricane number. Results were similar for floricane components in Summer 1994; however, there were no treatment effects on primocane or branch dry mass and there was a significant linear increase in crown dry mass with floricane number. By Winter 1994-95, there were no treatment effects on primocane or crown dry mass. Plants without floricanes produced more primocanes per plant than plants with floricanes in 1993 but not in 1994. Plants without floricanes produced primocanes that had a significantly lower percent budbreak the following year (1994) than plants with floricanes. Primocanes produced by plants without floricanes had more nodes per branch and a greater average branch cane length than those from plants with floricanes the previous season. The number of nodes per primocane tended to decrease with an increase in floricane number per plant in 1994 and 1995. There was no significant effect of floricane number per plant the previous season on fruit per lateral, fruit mass, or yield per plant the following season in either treatment year (1993 + 1994). However, in 1994, plants without floricanes the previous year had the lowest yield per cane. Topping primocanes at 30 cm in 1993 and 1994 had few significant effects on yield components the following season. Thus, `Marion' blackberry can compensate for reduced fruiting cane number through an increased percent budbreak on remaining canes. While there were differences in primocane dry mass among treatments after harvest in 1993, there were no differences by mid-winter in either 1993 or 1994. Although plants grown without floricanes in 1993 had more primocanes, these canes had a lower percent budbreak the following season. Consequently, in this study we did not see increased yield in plants grown without floricanes the previous season. This was perhaps because primocanes were not trained as they grew, a practice that improves light exposure to the canes and may increase flower bud initiation.

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Fumiomi Takeda, Bernadine C. Strik, Derek Peacock, and John R. Clark

Flower bud development was studied in `Cherokee', `Boysen', and `Marion' blackberries (Rubus subgenus Rubus Watson). In `Cherokee' (erect type), the transition to reproductive development in buds on the branch canes occurred during September in Arkansas and Oregon. Transitions of buds in the axils of the most basal nodes (proximal to the main cane) and the most distal nodes lagged behind buds in the midsection (about nodes 6 to 10). Along the midsection of branch canes, the buds developed uniformly. In buds of `Boysen' and `Marion' (trailing type), the transition to reproductive development occurred in October and sepal primordia were observed in most buds examined by November. Progression of floral bud development continued into January, but at a slower rate than in autumn. Buds on the main canes (>3 m long) of `Boysen' and `Marion' remained at a more advanced stage of flower bud differentiation than buds on the basal branch canes. In both cultivars, buds from the middle one-third section, and sometimes buds from the bottom one-third section, tended to be more advanced than those buds in the top one-third section during much of the sampling period. The results suggest that rate and patterns of flower bud development vary among cultivars grown in different locations. However, the pattern of flower bud development was not in a basipetal fashion on main or branch canes.