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Shawna L. Daley, William Patrick Wechter, and Richard L. Hassell

ground using a mortar and pestle and stored at −20 °C until analyzed. Carbohydrate extraction. Glucose, sucrose, fructose, and starch were enzymatically extracted from 70 mg dried, ground tissue following the protocol of Zhao et al. (2010) . Microplate

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Weiping Zhong, Zhoujun Zhu, Fen Ouyang, Qi Qiu, Xiaoming Fan, and Deyi Yuan

al., 2019 ; Xiong et al., 2018 ). Its nut contains large amounts of starch, protein, and soluble sugars, and relatively low amounts of fat ( Fan et al., 2015 ). Because of its preferred taste and health benefits, chinquapin is one of the most

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Shawna L. Daley, Jeffrey Adelberg, and Richard L. Hassell

a starch increase of 100- and 200-fold in hypocotyls of bottle gourd and interspecific hybrid squash rootstocks, respectively, over 21 d after fatty alcohol treatment ( Daley et al., 2014 ). We hypothesize that this increase of stored energy in the

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X. Fan, J.P. Mattheis, M.E. Patterson, and J.K. Fellman

Total starch and amylose (AM) concentration and a starch index (SI) were determined in `Fuji' apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) fruit from weekly harvests in 1990 and 1991. As apples matured, SI scores increased and total starch and amylose content decreased. The percentage of AM in the total starch decreased as the apples matured. Because KI solutions interact efficiently only with AM, the SI is less reliable in representing total starch during later stages of `Fuji' apple maturation.

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Thomas E. Marler and Nirmala Dongol

analogous to the triploid endosperm of angiosperm seeds. Studies of cycad megagametophytes may increase our understanding of evolution of the angiosperm endosperm ( Brenner et al., 2003 ). The starch content of cycad megagametophyte tissue has been exploited

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Ricardo Goenaga, Brian Irish, and Angel Marrero

sugars and starch, 500-mg fruit samples were collected at harvest time (mature green stage) and ground after lyophilization. A fruit sample subset was allowed to fully ripen (ripened yellow stage) and analyzed for sugars and starch. Soluble sugars were

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K.E. Tripp, M.M. Peet, D.H. Willits, and D.M. Pharr

Two cultivars of greenhouse tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were grown with ambient or 1000 μl CO2/liter during Jan.-June 1987 and 1988. In both years, CO2-enrichment increased foliar deformation and foliar starch, but during the season, foliar starch levels decreased while deformation increased. `Laura' had more deformation, while `Michigan-Ohio' had higher foliar starch concentration. During an entire season, there was no significant relationship between foliar starch concentration and deformation severity. Foliar C exchange rates in the lower canopy were not affected by severity of deformation. Data from these experiments do not support the hypothesis that excess foliar starch is responsible for foliar deformation at elevated CO2.

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Nicky G. Seager and Roger M. Haslemore

Experiments investigating kiwifruit [Actinidia deliciosa (A. Chev) C.F. Liang et A.R. Ferguson var. deliciosa] maturation were undertaken requiring the determination of total soluble sugar (TSS) and starch concentrations in numerous fruit samples. The phenol-sulfuric acid assay was judged to he a convenient method for determining TSS from tissue extracts and gave results similar to those obtained by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The starch procedure adopted involved gelatinizing fruit tissue using hot water and a thermostable α -amylase (Termamyl); hydrolizing starch using amyloglucosidase; and determining glucose using glucose oxidase. The methods enabled one person to analyze up to 40 kiwifruit samples for TSS and starch concentrations during 9 hours and likely will be applicable to research concerning fruit development and maturation.

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Thomas E. Marler and Gil N. Cruz

seed infestations by A. yasumatsui on nonstructural carbohydrate relations of various C. micronesica seed tissues. We predicted free sugars and starch would decline following A. yasumatsui herbivory and the relative declines of carbohydrates in

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Stephen F. Klauer, Chuhe Chen, Paul W. Foote, and J. Scott Cameron

On four dates during the 1991 growing season, gas exchange rates were measured on the same middle leaflets every 3 h from 7am-10pm from deflowered (DF) and fruiting (F) red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. cv. “Meeker”) canes. Concurrently, the adjacent side leaflets were sampled for anatomical starch determination. The dates corresponded to the late anthesis/early green fruit, early red fruit, late red fruit, and post fruit maturity stages of the growing season. For all dates, CO2 assimilation (A) was highest from 7-10am, lowest at 4pm, and increased at 7pm. Overall A peaked during fruit development. Leaves of F canes had greater A than leaves of DF canes during fruit development, but rates were similar after fruit maturity.

Starch accumulation in leaf cross-sections generally followed the diurnal pattern observed for A. Starch appeared heaviest from 7am-lpm and often showed an increase from 7-10pm. Leaves from DF canes generally had a greater accumulation of starch. Seasonally, leaf starch from F canes appeared greatest at late anthesis, decreased during fruit development and was very low post fruit maturity. Leaf starch in DF canes appeared greatest at the late anthesis and late red fruit stages.

DF leaves had greater dry weight accumulation than F leaves during the red fruit stages. A Western blot showed that Rubisco levels as a percentage of total soluble protein were higher during fruit development and decreased after fruit maturity.