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P.I. Garriz, G.M. Colavita, and H.L. Alvarez

Crop load and the genetic biological carrying capacity (source–sink relationships) determine the potential for fruit size development on apple; however, the environment within which the fruit grows attenuates this potential. The effects of different crop loads on the growth pattern and the progress of maturity in apples were evaluated at the Comahue National Univ., Argentina (lat. 38 56'S long 67 59'W), during the 1998–99 growing season. Our experiment was conducted on 6-year-old `Braeburn'/Malling Merton 111 apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) trees spaced 4.0 × 2.3 m and trained to palmette leader. Treatments were 1) light crop load (LC), 2.5 fruit/cm2 trunk cross-sectional area (TCSA), 2) moderate crop load (MC), 6.5 fruit/cm2 TCSA (standard commercial crop load) and 3) high crop load (HC), minimum 8 fruit/cm2 TCSA, no fruit removed from tree. Whole trees were hand-thinned 19 days after full bloom (DAFB). Fruit diameter (FD) was taken at two weekly intervals (n = 24 per date and treatment) and maturity indexes were determined at harvest. Analysis of variance was used and mean separations were computed with Student's t test. From 38 DAFB until harvest, fruit size was significantly reduced (P < 0.01) in the HC trees, indicating that they were source-limited during growth. At 166 DAFB, FD was 7.48, 7.14, and 6.89 cm for the LC, MC and HC treatments, respectively. Adequate carbon was apparently available to support a commercial crop load since no differences were found between LC and MC trees. Crop level influenced flesh firmness; at 173 DAFB, it was significantly lower in HC trees than MC and LC trees (84.33, 92.51, and 91.57 N, respectively). These results suggest some goals of thinning for ensuring sizable `Braeburn' fruit.

Open access

Rui Wang, Yuqing Gui, Tiejun Zhao, Masahisa Ishii, Masatake Eguchi, Hui Xu, Tianlai Li, and Yasunaga Iwasaki

; Villalobos and Ritchie, 1992 ). Under heat stress, the whole-plant carbohydrate partitioning of rice at anthesis was changed, and the sugars acted as a signal molecule to mediate the source–sink relationship ( Zhang et al., 2018 ). Under suboptimal light

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Yongqiang Qian, Deying Li, Lei Han, and Zhenyuan Sun

defined as a process of redistribution of assimilated resources among the interconnected ramets according to source-sink relationships ( Forde, 1966 ; Kaitaniemi and Honkanen, 1996 ; Marshall, 1990 ). Physiological integration is an important means by

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Horacio E. Alvarado-Raya, Rebecca L. Darnell, and Jeffrey G. Williamson

al., 2006 ) may be the result of an overall decrease in root carbohydrate reserves in the annual system, and not differences in source–sink relationships between the two production systems. Further work on the effects of root pruning on raspberry

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Marlene Ayala and Gregory Lang

( Tables 4 and 5 ). Conversely, Kappel (1991) reported that, with ‘Lambert’ sweet cherry on vigorous P. avium seedling rootstocks, ES growth had a greater sink strength for photosynthates than fruit. Source–sink relationships and relative C

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Jieshan Cheng, Peige Fan, Zhenchang Liang, Yanqiu Wang, Ning Niu, Weidong Li, and Shaohua Li

Crop yield and fruit quality in fruit trees are highly dependent on efficient capture of solar energy and subsequent allocation of photoassimilate. Source-sink relationships are important factors influencing these allocation patterns. Fruit

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Rebecca L. Darnell, Horacio E. Alvarado-Raya, and Jeffrey G. Williamson

HortTechnology 16 1 6 Fernandez, G.E. Pritts, M.P. 1993 Growth and source-sink relationships in ‘Titan’ red raspberry Acta Hort. 352 151 157 Fernandez, G.E. Pritts, M.P. 1994 Growth

Open access

Lili Zhou, Maria Eloisa Q. Reyes, and Robert E. Paull

have been hampered by the absence of a nondestructive measure of the leaf area and information regarding the impact of leaf area loss on the photosynthesis rate and source-sink relationships. The large size of the leaves in this monopodial plant and the

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Ben Hong Wu, Hai Qiang Huang, Pei Ge Fan, Shao Hua Li, and Guo Jie Liu

water reservoir ( Huguet et al., 1992 ). Outflow of water from fruit during the day, as shown by fruit shrinkage, may influence the water status of adjacent leaves. Removing or retaining fruit has often been used in studies of source–sink relationships

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Shawna L. Daley, William Patrick Wechter, and Richard L. Hassell

Blake (1994) attribute the loss of total nonstructural carbohydrates to the loss of leaves, the source of carbon and growth hormones in the plants’ source–sink relationship. In a similar way, watermelon rootstock seedlings may be dependent on the