Soil water deficit impacts cold acclimation and freezing tolerance in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.), but the mechanisms underlying have not been well understood. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of deficit irrigation before and during cold acclimation on osmoprotectants, antioxidant metabolism, and freezing tolerance in creeping bentgrass. The grass was subjected to three-soil moisture levels: well-watered [100% container capacity (CC)], deficit irrigation induced-mild drought stress (60% CC), and severe drought stress (30% CC) for 35 days including 14 days at 24/20 °C (day/night) and then 21 days under cold acclimation treatment (2 °C) in growth chambers. Leaf proline and total soluble sugar (TSS) levels were higher in the grass under mild drought stress relative to that under severe drought stress. Superoxide (O2 −·), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were higher in the grass under severe drought relative to that under well-watered and mild drought stress at day 35. Mild drought stress increased catalase (CAT) and guaiacol peroxidase (POD) activity, induced new isoforms and increased band intensities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), CAT, and POD during cold acclimation (days 14 to 35). No differences in osmoprotectants, antioxidant metabolism, and freezing tolerance were found between mild drought and well-watered treatments. The results of this study suggest deficit irrigation-induced mild drought stress in late fall and winter could induce accumulation of osmoprotectants and improve antioxidant metabolism, and freezing tolerance, but severe drought stress could reduce freezing tolerance of creeping bentgrass in the region with limited precipitation.
Li-Juan Zhang, Tian-Xiu Zhong, Li-Xin Xu, Lie-bao Han, and Xunzhong Zhang
Jordi Marsal and Joan Girona
Relationships between midday (Ψmd) and predawn (Ψpd) leaf water potential, stomatal conductance (gs), and net CO2 assimilation rate (A) were determined at different fruit growth stages and for 2 years with different fruit loads in a `Sudanell' peach [Prunus persica (L) Batsch] plot subjected to two regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) strategies plus a control irrigation treatment. A postharvest RDI (PRDI) treatment was irrigated at 0.35 of the control after harvest. The second treatment (SPRDI) applied RDI during Stage II, the lag phase of the fruit growth curve, at 0.5 of the control and postharvest at 0.35 of the control. The control treatment and the PRDI and SPRDI when not receiving RDI were irrigated at 100% of a modified Penman crop water use calculation (ETo) in 1994, a full crop year, and 80% in 1995, a year of nearly zero crop. In 1995, with 80% of the 1994 irrigation rate and no crop, the Ψmd was higher, probably because of the lower crop load, while Ψpd was lower, probably because less water was applied to the soil. The relationship of gs and A with Ψmd during Stage II was steeper than during postharvest. Low Ψmd was not indicative of a depression in gs and A in Stage III. Osmotic leaf water potential at turgor loss (Ψπ 0) as derived from pressure-volume curves was more negative during Stage III and postharvest (about -2.9 MPa) than in Stage II (about -2.7 MPa). The Ψmd measurements together with Ψπ 0 determinations seemed to be more useful to characterize peach tree water status than Ψpd under soil water deficits because of their better relationship to midday stomatal closure.
Eric Simonne, Nadia Ouakrim, and Arnold Caylor
Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is often produced as a nonirrigated crop in the southeastern United States. This practice makes tuber yields dependent on rainfall pattern and amount. An irrigation scheduling method based on a water balance and daily class A pan evaporation (Ep) was evaluated during 1996 and 1998 on a Hartsells fine sandy loam soil for `Red LaSoda' potatoes. Planting dates were 9 and 7 Apr. in 1996 and 1998, respectively, and standard production practices were followed each year. The model tested was (13 DAH + 191) * 0.5 ASW = D DAH-1 + [Ep * (0.12 + 0.023 DAH - 0.00019 DAH2) - RDAH - IDAH], where DAH was days after hilling, ASW was available soil water (0.13 mm/mm), D was soil water deficit (mm), R was rainfall (mm), and I was irrigation (mm). Controlled levels of water application ranging between 0% and 200% of the model rate were created with drip tapes. Four and seven irrigations were scheduled in 1996 and 1998, respectively. For both years, no interaction between irrigation regime and nitrogen rate was observed. Irrigation rate significantly influenced total yield and marketable yield (R 2 > 0.88, P < 0.01). Highest total yields occurred at 99% and 86% of the model rate in 1996 and 1998, respectively. These results show that supplementing rainfall with irrigation and controlling the amount of water applied by adjusting irrigation to actual weather conditions increased potato marketable yield. Over the 2-year period of the study, an average additional profit of $563/ha/year was calculated from costs and returns due to irrigation, suggesting that drip-irrigation may be economical for potato production.
Khalid F. Almutairi, David R. Bryla, and Bernadine C. Strik
water-limited conditions. Thus, research is needed to determine whether there is any value to crop thinning during soil water deficits in blueberry. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the potential of using deficit irrigation, irrigation
Zhiyong Wang, Paul Raymer, and Zhenbang Chen
potassium HortScience 46 1400 1403 Cathey, S.E. Kruse, J.K. Sinclair, J.K. Dukes, M.D. 2011 Tolerance of three warm-season turf grasses to increasing and prolonged soil water deficit HortScience 46 1550 1555 Chen, S.L. Phillips, S.M. 2006 The flora of China
Karl Guillard and John C. Inguagiato
-season turfgrasses to increasing and prolonged soil water deficit HortScience 46 1550 1555 Doak, S.O. Schmidt, R.E. Ervin, E.H. 2005 Metabolic enhancer impact on creeping bentgrass leaf sodium and physiology under salinity Intl. Turfgrass Soc. Res. J. 10 845 849
Juan Carlos Díaz-Pérez and Touria E. Eaton
.027), suggesting that marketable yield was determined more by fruit number than individual fruit weight. In greenhouse-grown eggplant, soil water deficit decreased fruit number but not fruit size ( Chartzoulakis and Drosos, 1995 ). In a study with different levels
Tessa M. Mills, Jianming Li, and M. Hossein Behboudian
planted in recent years on many sites in New Zealand where soil water holding capacity is low, rainfall is variable, and periodic soil water deficits may develop. Gold kiwifruit differs from green in that its dormancy break is ≈1 month earlier, and tends
Xuelian Jiang, Yueling Zhao, Ling Tong, Rui Wang, and Sheng Zhao
), soil water deficit ( Patanè and Cosentino, 2010 ), and seasonal irrigation volume ( Favati et al., 2009 ; Kuscu et al., 2014 ; Zheng et al., 2013 ). There are many studies of the relationship between yield and water deficit but few studies that
Xuelian Jiang, Yueling Zhao, Rui Wang, and Sheng Zhao
priorities and future directions Ann. Appl. Biol. 147 211 226 Patanè, C. Cosentino, S.L. 2010 Effects of soil water deficit on yield and quality of processing tomato under a Mediterranean climate Agr. Water Mgt. 97 131 138 Patanè, C. Tringali, S. Sortino, O