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Ni Lee and Hazel Y. Wetzstein

Plantlets were recovered from axillary bud cultures of muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia, `Summit'). Nodal segments 0.5 to 1.0 cm long were cultured in Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 5, 10, 20, or 40 μm BA. Best total shoot production was obtained with 10 μm BA; with higher BA levels, shoots were unexpanded and exhibited high mortalities. MS medium supplemented with IBA enhanced rooting by increasing rooting percentage and number per plantlet. Shoots previously proliferated on medium with 5 μm BA rooted significantly better than those multiplied on 10 μM BA. Shoot vigor during rooting was greater in shoots proliferated on 5 vs. 10 μm BA. Root development was not significantly affected by liquid vs. agar-solidifted medium or shoot length. Chemical names used: N-(phenylmethyl) -1H-purin-6-amine (BA), 1H-indole-3-butyric acid (IBA).

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Masanori Kadota, Takashi Hirano, Kiyotoshi Imizu, and Yoshiji Niimi

Effects of PA on in vitro shoot proliferation and root formation were investigated using shoot cultures of three Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) cultivars. PA inhibited shoot multiplication and promoted initiation and development of roots in the cultured shoots of three cultivars, resulting in increasing the proportion of rooted shoots. Chemical name used: pyroligneous acid (PA).

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Thomas W. Zimmerman, Fred T. Davies Jr., and Jayne M. Zajicek

Dyssodia pentacheta, a prostrate-growing perennial Texas wildflower with potential for use in low-maintenance landscapes, was propagated in vitro and by stem cuttings under mist. Optimum rooting for IBA-treated semihardwood terminal stem cuttings (3 to 30 mm IBA) and in vitro-grown nodal segments (30 to 100 mm IBA) occurred after 4 weeks under an intermittent mist system. A 300-mm IBA basal dip was lethal to macroand microcuttings. In vitro, D. pentacheta produced more shoots per nodal explant on Woody Plant Medium (2 g Gelrite/liter) with 1 to 10 μ m BA than with combinations of BA and 0.5 μm NAA. After shoot proliferation, the shoots were subculture twice and grown on growth regulator-free medium. When maintaining D. pentacheta in vitro on media devoid of plant growth regulators, 1% sucrose was more effective than 2% for promoting shoot growth and suppressing apparent production of phenolics. Chemical names used: N-(phenylmethyl) -1H-purin-6-amine (BA); 1H-indole-3-butyric acid (IBA); 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA).

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Samir C. Debnath

Chemical Co., St. Louis, MO) containing 35 mL modified cranberry basal medium [BM, three-fourth macrosalts and microsalts of Debnath and McRae's (2001a) shoot proliferation medium D] supplemented with 25 g·L −1 sucrose, 3.5 g·L −1 Sigma A 1296 agar

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Yasseen Mohamed-Yasseen

Neem is considered to be one of the most promising plants for producing pesticides, pharmaceutical, as well as many commonplace materials. A protocol for shoot formation from nodal and stem explants is described. Stem nodes and stem segments were obtained from mature tree and cultured in Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) supplemented with 0.5 μM thidiazuron (TDZ), and 0.5 uM naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Stem node explants produced multiple shoots which were separated and cultured on MS supplemented with 0.01, 0.03, 0.5, or 0.9 uM TDZ with 0.5 uM NAA. Stem explants produced callus which regenerated shoots upon transfer to a fresh medium. Formed shoots produced roots in proliferation medium or rooted in MS supplemented with 3.3 uN indolebutyric acid, and were transferred to soil. Number of produced shoots increased with increasing TDZ concentration but shoot and root length decreased.

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Youping Sun, Donglin Zhang, and John Smagula

somatic embryos were obtained from immature Ilex aquifolium L. (English holly) zygotic embryos; however, the conversion rate of embryos into plants was low. In general, Ilex species have been propagated by shoot proliferation using nodal segments

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Aida M. Allam

Attempts to improve somatic embryogenesis of five pecan (Carya illinoinensis L.) cultivars using different levels of blue-green aIgal extract added to the media proved effective. WPM4-pecan media, containing 1.0 g malic hydrozide/liter and 30 g sucrose/liter, for embryo enlargement showed that the higher the extract concentration the longer the embryo harvested after 7 to 8 weeks of incubation at 22 to 25C. `Desirable' responded the best to the algal extract, where the percent elongation recorded was 129.1, 177.3, 174.2, and 200.6 for 0%, 1%, 2%, and 4%, respectively. Dessicating the embryos at 5C for 5 days enhanced the conversion on WPM4 conversion media containing silver nitrate and GA3. The number of normal shoots and roots was higher at 1% extract in cultivars Muhan, Elliot, and S-17, while the 4% algal extract was more effective for `Desirable' and `Shawnee'. Algal extract had no effect on media pH. Survival of converted embryos in the greenhouse was promising.

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Yujie Yang, Donglin Zhang, Zhihui Li, Xiaoling Jin, and Jinying Dong

. Effect of cytokinins on shoot proliferation. To figure out the optimal conditions for axillary bud proliferation and shoot elongation, 6-BA at 2.22, 4.44, 8.88, or 17.76 µM and ZT (Sigma Chemical Co., Perth, WA) at 2.28, 4.56, 9.12, or 18.24 µM were

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Andrew Riseman and Siva Chennareddy

Protocols for in vitro propagation are reported for interspecific hybrids of Exacum L., derived from Sri Lankan taxa. Four genotypes were used to evaluate the effects of MS (Murashige and Skoog) and WP (Woody Plant) media supplemented with 2-iP, BA, or KIN during establishment and multiplication phases. In addition, rhizogenesis and associated root characteristics were evaluated using MS medium supplemented with NAA or IBA. Overall, either 2-iP or BA was significantly more effective than kinetin in establishment and shoot proliferation with significant genotype × treatment interactions present. Maximum multiplication rates were achieved in the following genotype-hormone combinations: E-6, 2 mg·L-1 BA (4.5 per explant); E-23, E-32, and E-37, 2 mg·L-1 2-iP (3.5, 2.5, and 3.6 per explant, respectively). In vitro rhizogenesis was greatest in liquid MS medium supplemented with 1 mg·L-1 NAA while significantly reduced rooting was observed with IBA supplements. Our results demonstrate that micropropagation of Sri Lankan Exacum hybrids is possible and that adequate multiplication and rooting percentages can be achieved. However, the high level of genetic variation identified requires genotype-specific media modifications. Chemical names used: benzyladenine (BA); 2-isopentenyladenine (2-iP); indole-3-butyric acid (IBA); α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA); kinetin (KIN).