The carotenoids have an important influence on tomato fruit quality and enhance the fruit contribution to human nutrition. Expression of the high pigment (hp) locus in tomato results in increased total carotenoids and increased efficiency of utilization of the polyenes. A similar mutant, dark green (dg), contains higher level of chlorophyll in immature fruit and results in darker red pigmentation, both externally and internally in ripe fruit. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analyses were performed using two pairs of near isogenic lines (NILs) designed to be isogenic at the hp and dg loci. Sixty-four AFLP primer pairs and more than 1000 RAPD 10-mer primers were screened for polymorphism between each pair of the NILs. One RAPD marker was identified to be linked to the hp gene, and two AFLP primer pairs showed polymorphic fragments which distinguished the dg NILs. The markers identified in this study will be converted to allele specific SCAR (sequence characterized amplified region) markers, which are more useful in marker-assisted selection breeding programs.
Yiping Zhang and John R. Stommel
Courtney A. Weber, Gloria A. Moore, Zhanao Deng, and Fred G. Gmitter Jr.
Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with freeze tolerance was accomplished using a Citrus grandis (L.) Osb. × Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. F1 pseudo-testcross population. A progeny population of 442 plants was acclimated and exposed to temperatures of -9 °C and -15 °C in two separate freeze tests. A subpopulation of 99 progeny was genotyped for random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS), sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR), and sequence tagged site (STS) markers to produce a linkage map for each parent. Potential QTL were identified by interval mapping, and their validity was corroborated with results from means comparison (t test), one-way analysis of variance (F test), and bulked segregant analysis (BSA). Multiple analytical methods provided evidence supporting putative QTL and decreased the probability of missing significant QTL associated with freeze tolerance. QTL with a large effect on freeze tolerance were located on both the Citrus and Poncirus linkage maps. In addition, clusters of markers with significantly different means between marker present and absent classes indicating minor QTL that contribute smaller effects on the level of tolerance were found on the linkage maps of both species.
Frederick J. Ryan and David W. Ramming
The development of grapevines with berries with small seed traces, so-called seedless grapes, is a costly process. Marker assisted selection would save time and money. Adam-Blondin et al. (Vitis 40:147. 2001) demonstrated that a sequence characterized amplified region, SCC8, could identify seedless grapevine cultivars in European accessions of Vitisvinifera L. We have applied this marker to two populations of grapevines in a breeding program in California. One population consisted of 100 individuals while the second had 109. The two crosses had a common female parent, derived from `Flame Seedless'. Fruit were evaluated over several seasons for parameters including total weight of seeds or traces. DNA was isolated from leaves during the spring. Amplification was carried out with SCC8 primers, followed by digestion with Bgl II, and agarose gel electrophoresis. Individuals were scored as homozygous SCC8+ (small seeded), heterozygous SCC8+/scc8-(intermediate sized seeds), or homozygous scc8-(large seeded) and mean total seed weight per berry was calculated for each genetic class. In the first population, the number of individuals in the inferred genotypes fit an expected 1:2:1 distribution (χ2 = 0.480, P> 0.787) and seed weights for each genetic class were reasonable. For the second population, it was necessary to postulate a null allele in one parent, with a 1:1:1:1 expected distribution for genotypes SCC8+/SCC8+, SCC8+/null, SCC8+/scc8-, and scc8-/null. The actual distribution was in agreement with this model (χ2 = 4.379, P> 0.223). The genotype SCC8+/null had the SCC8+ marker and total seed weight >10 mg per berry. Large seeded individuals and heterozygotes could be reliably identified with this marker.
Yiqun Weng, Shanna Johnson, Jack E. Staub, and Sanwen Huang
A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from two cultivated cucumber (Cucumis sativus var. sativus L., 2n = 2x = 14) lines, Gy7 (synonym G421) and H-19, was previously used to map yield and fruit quality components. However, the map consisted mainly of dominant markers (i.e., random amplified polymorphic DNAs or amplified fragment length polymorphisms) limiting its use in plant improvement and map-based gene cloning. We report here a moderately saturated genetic map derived from this RIL population that incorporates codominant microsatellite [simple sequence repeat (SSR)] markers and two architectural traits, little leaf (ll) and determinate (de), growth habit. Of 821 cucumber genomic SSR primer pairs evaluated for map construction, 140 (17.0%) were polymorphic between the mapping parents. In combination with 42 previously mapped sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) and SSR makers, these polymorphic markers were used to construct a linkage map with 46 RILs and 176 mapped loci spanning ≈400 cM across seven linkage groups (LG). The numbers of loci mapped on LG 1 through 7 were 11, 6, 35, 18, 46, 45, and 15, respectively. The ll locus was flanked by SSR02355 and SSR03940 (4.2 and 3.6 cM from ll, respectively), and de was flanked by CSWCTT14b and SSR13251 (1.4 and 4.2 cM from the de, respectively). The SSR markers linked with the de and ll genes were mapped to Chromosome 6. No recombination suppression was detected among the mapped loci examined. This Gy7 × H-19 RIL-based genetic map shared 94 marker loci with a previously reported RIL-based linkage map derived from a wide cross between C. sativus var. sativus line Gy14 and C. sativus var. hardwickii Alef. R. PI 183967. Comparative mapping supported previous findings that genomic differences (likely chromosomal rearrangements) exist between Gy14 and PI 183967.
Yuanfu Ji and John W. Scott
Resistance to begomoviruses tomato mottle virus (ToMoV) and tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) has been introgressed to tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) from L. chilense accessions LA 1932, LA 2779, and LA 1938. Resistance genes have been mapped to three regions on chromosome 6 using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. We call these regions 1, 2, and 3. To facilitate breeding by marker assisted selection, advanced breeding lines with resistance from the above sources were assayed for the presence of RAPD markers to determine which were most tightly linked to begomovirus resistance. The best RAPD markers were then converted to sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers or cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) markers. In addition, selected restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers near the three regions were converted into CAPS markers, which were tested for association with the advanced breeding lines. Only LA 2779 derivatives have the L. chilense introgression in region 1, which is near the location of the Ty-1 gene and spans across CAPS markers 32.5Cla and TG118. Two region 1 RAPD markers UBC197 and UBC621 were converted co-dominant SCAR or CAPS markers, which were present in all 16 resistant breeding lines tested. Derivatives from all three accessions have introgressions in region 2. Further assays with more markers in this region are under way to determine the lengths and locations of the introgressions. No tightly linked RAPD markers have been found for the resistance gene from LA 1932 in region 3. RFLP and CAPS markers are being used to more precisely locate the region 3 gene.
John M. Capik, Megan Muehlbauer, Ari Novy, Josh A. Honig, and Thomas J. Molnar
Stable genetic resistance to the fungal disease eastern filbert blight (EFB), caused by Anisogramma anomala, is vital for sustainable production of European hazelnut (Corylus avellana) in eastern North America. In this study, new hazelnut germplasm from the Russian Federation, Ukraine, and Poland (a total of 1844 trees from 66 seed lots) was subjected to A. anomala under field conditions over at least five years in New Jersey. Plants were then rated for the presence of EFB using an index of 0 (no disease) through 5 (all stems containing cankers). Nuts of the resistant trees were evaluated to identify plants with improved kernel characteristics. Genomic DNA of these trees was also screened with sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers generated by the primers BE-03, BE-33, and BE-68, which are closely linked to the single dominant R-gene of ‘Gasaway’, to assess the resistant seedlings for the presence of this well-known source of resistance. At final evaluation, 76 trees remained free of disease with nine expressing only minor symptoms (rating 1 or 2). The resistant trees spanned 24 different seed lots representing all three countries. The remaining trees ranged from moderately to severely infected with 81% of the total collection rating 5. Several of the resistant trees were found to produce commercial-sized (≈12 mm diameter), round kernels that blanched well. Although the results of the ‘Gasaway’ SCAR primers were inconclusive, the diverse collection origins and disease phenotypes provide evidence that novel sources of resistance were likely identified in this study. These new plants should broaden the genetic base of EFB-resistant C. avellana hazelnut germplasm available for breeding.
Gennaro Fazio, Jack E. Staub, and Sang Min Chung
Highly polymorphic microsatellites or simple sequence repeat (SSR), along with sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), markers are reliable, cost-effective, and amenable for large scale analyses. Molecular polymorhisms are relatively rare in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) (3% to 8%). Therefore, experiments were designed to develop SSR, SCAR and SNP markers, and optimize reaction conditions for PCR. A set of 110 SSR markers was constructed using a unique, strategically applied methodology that included the GeneTrapper (Life Technologies, Gaithersburg, Md.) kit to select plasmids harboring microsatellites. Of these markers, 58 (52%) contained dinucleotide repeats (CT, CA, TA), 21 (19%) possessed trinucleotide repeats (CTT, ATT, ACC, GCA), 3 (2.7%) contained tetranucleotide repeats (TGCG, TTAA, TAAA), 4 (3.6%) enclosed pentanucleotide repeat (ATTTT, GTTTT, GGGTC, AGCCC), 3 (2.7%) contained hexanucleotide repeats (CCCAAA, TAAAAA, GCTGGC) and 21 possessed composite repeats. Four SCARs (L18-3 SCAR, AT1-2 SCAR, N6-A SCAR, and N6-B SCAR) and two PCR markers based on SNPs (L18-2H19 A and B) that are tightly linked to multiple lateral branching (i.e., a yield component) were also developed. The SNP markers were developed from otherwise monomorphic SCAR markers, producing genetically variable amplicons. The markers L18-3 SCAR and AT1-2 SCAR were codominant. A three-primer strategy was devised to develop a codominant SCAR from a sequence containing a transposable element, and a new codominant SCAR product was detected by annealing temperature gradient (ATG) PCR. The use of a marker among laboratories can be enhanced by methodological optimization of the PCR. The utility of the primers developed was optimized by ATG-PCR to increase reliability and facilitate technology transfer. This array of markers substantially increases the pool of genetic markers available for genetic investigation in Cucumis.
Phillip N. Miklas, Richard Delorme, Valerie Stone, Mark J. Daly, J. Rennie Stavely, James R. Steadman, Mark J. Bassett, and James S. Beaver
Understanding the genomic associations among disease resistance loci will facilitate breeding of multiple disease resistant cultivars. We constructed a genetic linkage map in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) containing six genes and nine quantitative trait loci (QTL) comprising resistance to one bacterial, three fungal, and two viral pathogens of bean. The mapping population consisted of 79 F5:7 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a `Dorado'/XAN 176 hybridization. There were 147 randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers, two sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers, one intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR) marker, two seedcoat color genes R and V, the Asp gene conditioning seed brilliance, and two rust [Uromyces appendiculatus var. appendiculatus (Pers.:Pers) Unger] resistance genes: one conditioning resistance to Races 53 and 54 and the other conditioning resistance to Race 108. These markers mapped across eleven linkage groups, one linked triad, and seven linked pairs for an overall map length of 930 cM (Kosambi). Genes conditioning resistance to anthracnose (Co-2) [Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. and Magnus) Lams.-Scrib.], bean rust (Ur-5), and bean common mosaic virus (I and bc-3) (BCMV) did not segregate in this population, but were mapped by inference using linked RAPD and SCAR markers identified in other populations. Nine previously reported quantitative trait loci (QTL) conditioning resistance to a variety of pathogens including common bacterial blight [Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli (Smith) Dye], ashy stem blight [Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid.], and bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV), were located across four linkage groups. Linkage among QTL for resistance to ashy stem blight, BGMV, and common bacterial blight on linkage group B7 and ashy stem blight, BGMV, and rust resistance loci on B4 will complicate breeding for combined resistance to all four pathogens in this population.
H.M. Ariyarathne, D.P. Coyne, G. Jung, P.W. Skroch, A.K. Vidaver, J.R. Steadman, P.N. Miklas, and M.J. Bassett
Diseases of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are primary constraints affecting bean production. Information on tagging and mapping of genes for disease resistance is expected to be useful to breeders. The objectives of this study were to develop a random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker linkage map using 78 F9 recombinant inbred (RI) lines derived from a Middle-American common bean cross Great Northern Belneb RR-1 [resistant to common bacterial blight (CBB) and halo blight (HB)] × black A 55 [dominant I gene resistance to bean common mosaic potyvirus] and to map genes or QTL (quantitative trait loci) for resistance to CBB, HB, BCMV (bean common mosaic virus), and BCMNV (bean common mosaic necrosis virus) diseases. The RI lines were evaluated for resistance to leaf and pod reactions to Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli (Xcp) (Smith Dye) strain EK-11, leaf reactions to two Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola (Psp) (Burkholder) Young et al. (1978) strains HB16 and 83-Sc2A, and BCMV strain US-5 and BCMNV strain NL-3. The linkage map spanned 755 cM, including 90 markers consisting of 87 RAPD markers, one sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR), the I gene, and a gene for hypersensitive resistance to HB 83-Sc2A. These were grouped into 11 linkage groups (LG) corresponding to the 11 linkage groups in the common bean integrated genetic map. A major gene and QTL for leaf resistance to HB were mapped for the first time. Three QTL for leaf reactions to HB16 were found on linkage groups 3, 5, and 10. Four regions on linkage groups 2, 4, 5, and 9, were significantly associated with leaf reactions to HB strain 83-Sc2A. The gene controlling the hypersensitive reaction to HB 83-Sc2A mapped to the same region as the QTL on LG 4. The I locus for resistance to BCMV and BCMNV was mapped to LG 2 at about 1.4 cM from RAPD marker A10.1750. Five and four markers were significantly associated with QTL for resistance to CBB in leaves and pods, respectively, with four of them associated with resistance in both plant organs. A marker locus was discovered on LG 10, W10.550, which could account for 44% and 41% of the phenotypic variation for CBB resistance in leaves and pods, respectively. QTL for resistance in pod to CBB, leaf resistance to HB, and the I gene were linked on LG 2.
Aoxue Wang, Fanjuan Meng, Xiangyang Xu, Yong Wang, and Jingfu Li
Leaf mold, caused by the fungus Cladosporium fulvum, is a serious disease of tomato. In the current study, the main physiological races of C. fulvum collected from three northeastern provinces of China were identified using a set of identification hosts. The results showed that the prevalent pathogenic physiological races were 1.2.3, 1.3, 3, 126.96.36.199, and 1.2.4. F1, F2, and BC1 tomato plants were obtained by crossing C. fulvum-resistant cultivar 03748 carrying the Cf-6 gene and susceptible cultivar 03036. Three 10-mer oligonucleotide random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers and two simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers were selected for the further molecular marking analysis after 210 RAPD primers and 50 SSR primers were screened using the bulked segregate analysis method. The polymorphic DNA bands were amplified among parents, 10 F1 plants, 184 F2 plants including 145 resistant plants and 39 sensitive plants using three RAPD primers and two SSR primers so that three RAPD molecular markers and two SSR molecular markers linked to the Cf-6 loci were identified. Three RAPD markers were linked to the Cf-6 resistant locus separated with 8.7 cM, 20.3 cM, and 33.4 cM. Also, one RAPD codominant marker S374619/559 was found. The locations of the two SSR markers were 12.6 cM and 9.7 cM away from the Cf-6 locus. After cloning and sequencing two specific DNA fragments closely connected to the Cf-6 resistant and susceptible alleles respectively, in the RAPD codominant marker S374619/559 and one codominant sequence characterized amplified region marker S674619/559 was converted from RAPD marker S374619/559. In the RAPD marker S374619/559, the length difference of two specific fragments, 619-bp fragment and 559-bp fragment, is the result of one insertion (60 bp) in the 619-bp fragment. These markers will facilitate the selection of resistant tomato germplasm containing the Cf-6 gene and cloning of Cf-6 to breed new C. fulvum resistant tomato cultivars.