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David W. Burger, Richard W. Harris, and Pavel Svihra

Treeshelters are translucent, polypropylene tubes that have been used in England for 10 years to improve the transplantation success and early growth of trees in the landscape. The focus of the presented research will be on the use of treeshelters in producing plants in the container nursery. The results from outdoor nursery and greenhouse, solution culture experiments will be presented. Treeshelters increase the temperature, relative humidity, and carbon dioxide concentration around those plants growing in them. Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) inside shelters is reduced 40-60% depending on treeshelter color. Plants growing in treeshelters show increases in height and in the ratio between total fresh weight and total dry weight. However, plants growing in treeshelters also show decreases in leaf, stem, and root fresh and dry weights and leaf area. The potential benefits and current challenges surrounding the use of treeshelters will be discussed.

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Mary Lamberts, Slyvia Gordon, and George Fitzpatrick

Production budgets for both field grown vegetables and ornamental crops, field and container grown, are fairly common. Container grown vegetables, other than transplants, are much less common and do not have specific budgets which would allow growers to set realistic prices for individual plants. A specialized budget was adapted from one developed for container nurseries. Specific production costs were taken from a budget for field grown vegetables. This process could be adapted for use with other specialty crops. It could be used for county or state fairs and other situations where individual vegetable plants need to be raised in containers.

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C.C. Montgomery, B.K. Behe, J.L. Adrian, and K.M. Tilt

Aboveground container production revolutionized woody plant production. In-ground pot-in-pot container production combines the benefits of container production with traditional field production. Our objective was to determine the specific costs of production for field-grown, aboveground container, and pot-in-pot production methods for Lagerstroemia indica. We found differences in production cost with varying levels of input required by each production method. Pot-in-pot production systems had higher fixed and variable costs and a higher initial capital investment compared to the other two production methods. However, per unit production costs were similar to aboveground container production due to lower labor and equipment requirements.

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John Kabashima

Several production nurseries were surveyed about techniques used to reduce water usage and runoff. The nurseries surveyed used from 400,000 gallons of water per day to 5,000,000 gallons of water per day during peak usage. Water availability and the potential for nitrate runoff from large production nurseries to contaminate the environment have resulted in requirements by regulatory agencies to decrease water usage and runoff. Nurseries have complied by using techniques such as drip irrigation, subirrigation, pulsing, recycling, and computer controlled irrigation systems. The use of techniques such as recycling and “better management practices” have resulted in significant decreases (approximately 30%) in water usage.

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Muhammad Mumtaz Khan*, Muhammad Azam Khan, Muhammad Asif Ali, and Hasnain Raza

Six-week-old rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri L.) seedlings uniform in size were transplanted from nursery to pots filled with peat, spent compost of mushroom and leaf manure used at different proportions with soil, sand and farm yard manure and grown in green house environment. Initial physical and chemical analysis of media indicated that electric conductivity (EC), total porosity, bulk density, moisture percentage, available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium are more suitable for citrus plant growth and development than other media of different compositions. Peat + sand (1:1) had pH 6.7 which is optimum for growth of citrus nursery. After every four weeks plant length, stem diameter, number of leaves and leaf area were measured. Leaf analysis for N, P, K and mortality percentage was measured at the end of the experiment. Peat + sand (1:1) produced highest percentage of transplant success, plant height, stem diameter, and number of leaves as compared to all other treatments tested. At initial stage peat + sand (1:1) gave the highest results in relation to leaf area, but at the end of experiment it was observed that treatment with silt + spent compost (button) + spent compost (oyster) (1:1:1), produced maximum leaf area with lush green leaves however, mortality rate was very high. This study suggests that peat + sand (1:1) may serve as a standard medium for the container grown citrus nursery.

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Richard C. Beeson Jr.

In many sectors of agriculture, precision irrigation, applying only what water is needed for a given small area, has become a familiar term. Irrigation in most woody ornamental nurseries, though, has changed little since the 1960s. In many areas of the U.S., irrigation volumes required for nursery production have come under scrutiny due to projected, or real, competition for water with urban populations, or concerns over nursery runoff. Modeling of woody ornamental water use, and subsequent irrigation requirements, has been limited and focused mostly on trees. Previous research for modeling of non-tree water use is reviewed as an introduction to current efforts to develop models for precision irrigation of woody ornamentals. Pitfalls and limitations in current modeling efforts, along with suggestions for standardizing future research is emphasized. The latest model derived from recent research is presented.

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Mark H. Brand

The effect of shading during nursery production on the growth, foliage color, and foliar chlorophyll content of container-grown Kalmia latifolia cultivars was investigated. Five cultivars were grown under 40% shade, 60% shade, or full sunlight for a 2-year production cycle. During the first year of production, there were no significant differences in measured growth characteristics for most cultivars in response to light treatment. Shade improved foliar color by decreasing lightness (L*), decreasing chroma, and changing hue angle from a yellow-green to a darker green. Foliar chlorophyll concentration increased under shade. In the second year of the production cycle, the response of foliar color and chlorophyll concentration to shade was similar to that observed in year 1. Plant size, number of branches, leaf area, leaf dry mass, and stem dry mass decreased linearly with increasing shade in year 2. Although shading improves foliar color, it probably should not be employed for container production of Kalmia latifolia in cool, northern production areas due to reduced plant growth during year 2. Shade may be useful in the first year of production to enhance foliar color without reducing shoot growth.

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Michael P. Harvey and Mark H. Brand

Hakonechloa macra Makino 'Aureola' is an ornamental, shade tolerant landscape grass that grows slowly and commands high prices. Hakonechloa plants grown from four initial division sizes, of 1-2, 4-6, 8-10, or 12-15 tiller buds, were evaluated following a complete growing season (105 days). Based on visual observation, we rated 100% of plants grown from the two larger division sizes to be salable compared with only 30% of those from divisions containing 4-6 growing points, and none from the smallest division size. However, divisions of 1-2 tiller buds produced twice as many new shoots and tiller buds per initial tiller bud as did larger division sizes. To produce salable plants in one growing season, results suggest the use of 8-10 tiller bud divisions, but for propagation and increase of stock material, where it is important to obtain the greatest number of new growing points per initial growing point, use of the smaller division sizes is indicated. Hakonechloa plants were grown under shading densities of 0%, 30%, 50%, or 70% provided by polypropylene shade cloth. Shading increased overall growth and improved the appearance and leaf color of Hakonechloa, but at 70% shade density, plants appeared languid and open. For this reason, 50% shading is recommended for nursery production of Hakonechloa macra 'Aureola'.

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Tongyin Li, Guihong Bi, Richard L. Harkess, Geoffrey C. Denny, Eugene K. Blythe, and Xiaojie Zhao

demand). Fertilizer application rates are commonly determined in nursery production based on the assumption that water availability does not limit nutrient uptake and that container capacity should be maintained to promote plant growth and nutrient uptake