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Jennifer L. Baeten, Thomas C. Koch, and Irwin L. Goldman

Carrot has been bred for increased levels of pro-vitamin E α-tocopherol. This vitamin is lipid soluble. Carrot root has been shown to have measurable levels of lipid, but it is not certain if the lipid level is correlated to α-tocopherol levels. The HPLC method is needed to quantify levels of α-tocopherol. Measuring lipids may be less time consuming in a breeding program. We developed a method for extracting lipids from carrot tissue based on the Soxhlet extraction method. The Soxhlet extraction uses a non-polar ether solvent to pull lipids out of freeze-dried tissue. A collection of carrot accessions ranging in α-tocopherol concentration 0.04–0.18 ppm and carotenoid concentration 10.63–1673.76 ppm were used in this investigation. Root tissue was freeze-dried and lipid levels were measured in an experiment with two replications. The mean lipid level of root tissue was 0.05 g fat/g tissue. The range was 0–1.1 g fat/g tissue. Phenotypic correlations were performed among lipid, α-tocopherol, and β-carotene concentrations in these samples. Twenty-four samples were tested for lipid levels (12 high and 12 low). From these results, percent lipid of the root was determined. Correlations were made between the lipid data and α-tocopherol data of the given samples.

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Cristina Pisani, Mark A. Ritenour, Ed Stover, Anne Plotto, Rocco Alessandro, David N. Kuhn, and Raymond J. Schnell

using store-bought ‘Hass’ as the standard. Attributes assessed included dry matter and lipid content to determine whether these hybrids would meet California standards for avocado maturity when grown in east-central Florida. Materials and Methods Fruit

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Ravindranath V. Kanamangala, Niels O. Maness, Michael W. Smith, Gerald H. Brusewitz, Sue Knight, and Bhaggi Chinta

The unextracted and reduced lipid (supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of 22% and 27% (w/w) of total lipids) pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] kernels packaged in 21% O2, 79% N2 were analyzed for color, hexanal, sensory, fresh weight, and lipid class changes periodically during 37 weeks of storage at 25 °C and 55% relative humidity. Pecan nutmeats were lightened by partial lipid extraction. The pecan testa darkened (decreasing chromameter L*) with storage time. Most color changes occurred in the first 18 weeks. Hexanal concentration of reduced-lipid pecans was negligible throughout storage, while unextracted pecans reached excessive levels by week 22 of storage. Hexanal concentration, indicative of rancidity, was in agreement with sensory analysis results with the hexanal threshold level for objectionable rancidity ranging from 7 to 11 mg·kg-1 pecans. Weight change was negligible during storage, except in 27% reduced-lipid pecans. Free fatty acids increased with storage and were significantly higher in unextracted pecans than the reduced-lipid pecans at 0, 10, 18, 32, and 37 weeks of storage. Shelf life of pecans with partial lipid extraction was longer than unextracted pecans. In addition to decreasing the total amount of lipid available for oxidation, the free fatty acid lipid component that correlated with the development of rancidity was reduced by extraction.

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Abesinghe Arambage, James Garner, and J.L. Silva

Plasmalemma lipid fatty acid changes due to low temperature (12C) were observed in M521-1 and `Travis', chilling-tolerant and -sensitive, respectively, genotypes. Lipid fatty acid changes found in both genotypes after exposure to chilling included decreased palmitic acid (16:0) and an increased unsaturated: saturated fatty acid ratio. Changes detected only in the tolerant genotype were increased linoleic (18:2), linolenic (18:3) and erucic (22:1). Monogalactosyldiglyceride and phosphatidylglycerol were the only lipids with >50% of their fatty acids unsaturated; therefore, it was concluded that these lipids were involved in the chilling tolerance of M521-1. A reduction in arachidonic (20:4) on phosphatidylinositol from `Travis' exposed to 12C resulted in <50% unsaturation of this lipid. This change could be associated with the chilling sensitive response of `Travis'.

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Yuefang Wang, S. Kristine Braman, Carol D. Robacker, Joyce G. Latimer, and Karl E. Espelie

Epicuticular lipids were extracted from the foliage of six deciduous and one evergreen azalea genotypes (Rhododendron sp.) and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The relationship of leaf-surface lipid composition with measures of resistance to azalea lace bug, Stephanitis pyrioides Scott, was evaluated. Each genotype had a distinct epicuticular lipid composition. The major surface lipid components from all test taxa were n-alkanes and triterpenoids. In the most resistant genotypes [R. canescens Michaux and R. periclymenoides (Michaux) Shinners] ursolic acid, n-hentriacontane, and n-nonacosane were the most abundant epicuticular lipids. The lipids present in largest proportion among all susceptible deciduous genotypes tested were α-amyrin, β-amyrin, and n-nonacosane. The proportions of the lipid components from the same plant of each genotype varied between spring and fall samples. Among classes of lipids, n-alkanes, n-1-alkanols, and triterpenoids had significant correlations with azalea lace bug behavior on host plants. Among individual components, heptadecanoic acid, n-hentriacontane, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid and one unknown compound (with major mass spectra 73/179/192/284/311) were significantly negatively correlated with host plant susceptibility to azalea lace bug, as measured by oviposition, leaf area damaged, egg and nymphal development, and nymphal survivorship. Triacontanol, α-amyrin, β-amyrin, and three unknowns were significantly positively correlated with host plant susceptibility. Acceptance or rejection by azalea lace bug to a particular plant may be mediated by a balance of positively and negatively interpreted sensory signals evoked by plant chemicals. This study indicated that the high levels of resistance observed in R. canescens and R. periclymenoides may be due to the lesser amount or the absence of attractants and stimulants for feeding or oviposition.

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Chana Phromtons and J. O. Garner Jr.

Storage roots of `Beauregard' and Centennial' were analyzed for total fatty acid composition and fatty acid composition by lipid class. The glycolipid, monagalactosyldiglycerol, may have been involved in chilling tolerance of `Beauregard' storage roots. This lipid had over 70 percent low-melting point fatty acids, mostly linoleic acid and linolenic acid. No consistent differences in the composition of phospholipids could be related to the chilling responses of the two sweetpotato cultivars.

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Sin-Ae Park, A-Young Lee, Hee-Geun Park, Ki-Cheol Son, Dae-Sik Kim, and Wang-Lok Lee

to infections that negatively impact the quality of life of the elderly ( Dorshkind et al., 2009 ; Palm et al., 2009 ; Suzman et al., 2015 ). Ageing is also associated with multiple systemic dysfunctions of the body, lipid metabolism disorders, and

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Shiow Y. Wang and Miklos Faust

The changes of membrane lipids in apple (Malus domestics Borkh. cv. Delicious) auxillary and terminal buds from August to April were determined. The predominant lipids were monogalactosyl diglyceride (MGDG), digalactosyl diglyceride (DGDG), phosphatidylcholine (PC), and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). An increase in membrane polar lipids was associated with budbreak and bud growth from August to April. Linolenic acid was the predominant fatty acid in MGDG, DGDG, and PC, while linoleic acid was predominant in PE. Phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and phosphatidylinositol (PI) contained a high amount of palmitic acid. The ratio of (18:2 + 18:3) to 18:1 fatty acids in galactolipids in apple buds increased from August to April. ß-Sitosterol and sitosteryl ester were the predominant sterols in apple buds. An increase in sitosterol, a decrease in sitosteryl ester, and a decline in the ratio of free sterols to phospholipids occurred during budbreak in spring. A decrease in sitosterol was associated with bud expansion in spring.

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T.G. McCollum, R.E. McDonald, and H.E. Nordby

The objective of this work was to determine if lipid composition of grape fruit flavedo tissue differed with canopy position and if changes in flavedo lipid composition occurred during the development of chilling injury (CI). `Marsh grapefruit were harvested from interior (IN) and exterior (EX) canopy positions and stored at 5C for up to 8 weeks. During storage, EX fruit developed severe CI, whereas IN fruit developed only trace CI. Electrolyte leakage from EX fruit flavedo increased during storage and significantly greater than from IN fruit At the time of harvest, flavedo oleate and linoleate, on a μg % basis, were higher in IN than in EX fruit During storage at 5C, the amount of oleate in IN fruit flavedo decreased and was similar to EX fruit after 4 weeks at 5C. The relative amount of flavedo linoleate decreased in IN fruit and increased in EX fruit during storage at 5C and following 8 weeks at 5C was higher in EX fruit than in IN fruit At the time of harvest, total lipid P in flavedo was higher in IN fruit than in EX fruit; during storage the amount of flavedo lipid P in IN fruit decreased and was equivalent to EX fruit following 8 weeks at 5C. Total sterols in flavedo did not differ with canopy position and remained constant during storage.

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Gene Lester

Polyamines are effective scavengers of activated oxygen free radicals produced by lipoxygenase (LOX) and phospholipase-D (PL-D). Activated oxygen free radicals cause peroxidative damage to membranes and hasten senescence. Exogenous polyamine spermidine (SPD) compared to spermine (SPM) at 1 mM or no polyamine was an effective inhibitor of honey dew (Cucumis melo L. var. inodorus) membrane peroxidation, as determined by malondialdehyde (MDA), following dark incubation for 6 or 48 hours of fully abscised fruit hypodermal mesocarp tissue. MDA levels in SPD-treated tissue was lowest in both 6 and 48 hours compared to SPM or no polyamine. SPD was effective in slowing lipid peroxidation as MDA was highly negatively correlated with the loss in total chlorophyll, plasma membrane H+ pumping ATPase activity, and microsomal phospholipid content (r = -0.89, -0.64 and -0.57, respectively). Both LOX and PL-D enzyme activities were not correlated with the total chlorophyll and microsomal membrane phospholipid losses or MDA levels, demonstrating that these enzymes act indirectly in the degradation of membranes through the production of lipid peroxidating free radicals. The results also demonstrate that the effect of polyamines as anti-senescence compounds is through direct inhibition of lipid peroxidation and not by affecting LOX or PL-D free radicle production.