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W. Garrett Owen and Roberto G. Lopez

are controlled environments ( Gruda, 2005 ) where light (quantity, quality, and duration), temperature, relative humidity, CO 2 concentration, and water and nutrient availability are adjusted ( Gary, 2003 ) for optimal plant growth and development

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Beth A. Fausey and Arthur C. Cameron

photoperiods and high light quantity (9–26 mol·m −2 ·d −1 ) only marginally improved flowering (0% to 15%) after 12 weeks of growth (B. Fausey and A.C. Cameron, unpublished data). Although growth at any temperature may result in flowering when given enough time

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Elisha Otieno Gogo, Mwanarusi Saidi, Jacob Mugwa Ochieng, Thibaud Martin, Vance Baird, and Mathieu Ngouajio

quantities that reached the French bean crop (DLI) were lowered by ≈1% and 11.5%, respectively, by the use of agronet covers. Covers block light as well as reduce the light quality ( Antignus and Ben-Yakir, 2004 ). The reduction in PAR and light quantity

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Juan Carlos Díaz-Pérez and Kelly St. John

vegetative growth in various crops ( Oren-Shamir et al., 2001 ; Shahak, 2008 ). In this study, shade nets modified light quantity (i.e., PAR ) received by bell pepper plants; the effect of shade net treatments on light quality was not measured. Black nets

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Maria E. Cramer, Kathleen Demchak, Richard Marini, and Tracy Leskey

by light quantity. They tend to be most active in the field in full-sun conditions ( Fleming, 1972 ). Research involving wind tunnel bioassays and field observations also showed that the degree of Japanese beetle response to attractants was related

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Lie Li, Yu-xin Tong, Jun-ling Lu, Yang-mei Li, and Qi-chang Yang

). Therefore, the light conditions in a PFAL can be controlled precisely to meet the needs of plants. Compared with light quantity and light period, light quality has much more complex effects on plant morphology and physiology ( Folta and Carvalho, 2015 ; Xu

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Catherine M. Whitman and Erik S. Runkle

Coreopsis grandiflora ‘Sunray’ by vernalization, photoperiod and light quantity. PhD diss., Dept. of Horticulture, Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI Runkle, E. Heins, R. Cameron, A. Carlson, W. 2001 Horticultural flowering of herbaceous perennials

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Kelly M. Stanton, Sally S. Weeks, Michael N. Dana, and Michael V. Mickelbart

Light quantity and timing are often variable in urban and suburban landscapes ( Kjelgren, 1995 ). Buildings often cast shadows to the north (in the northern hemisphere) and east and west sides of buildings provide only morning or afternoon sun

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Jiffinvir Khosa, Robyn Lee, Srishti Joshi, Martin Shaw, John McCallum, and Richard Macknight

therefore especially important when studying different growth phases of onion. Control of light quantity and quality are critical to manage onion growth and development in controlled environments ( Brewster, 2008 ). Under controlled environments, fluorescent

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Katherine F. Garland, Stephanie E. Burnett, Lois B. Stack, and Donglin Zhang

size and branching. Literature cited Armitage, A.M. 2001 Armitage's manual of annuals, biennials, and half-hardy perennials Timber Press Portland, OR Beckwith, A.G. Zhang, Y. Seeram, N.P. Cameron, A.C. Nair, M.G. 2004 Relationship of light quantity and