Oregon State University (OSU) developed an integrated pest management (IPM) program for hazelnut (Corylus avellana.) in the early 1980s, through a USDA grant. Sampling schemes and action thresholds were refined over a period of 4 years for the filbertworm (Cydia latiferreana), filbert aphid (Myzocallis coryli), filbert leafroller (Archips rosanus.), and obliquebanded leafroller (Choristoneura rosaceana), which are the most important insect pests in Oregon hazelnuts. A classical biological approach was employed in the mid-1980s when the filbert aphid parasitoid, Trioxys pallidus, was imported from Europe. Grower survey results for 1981 and 1997 showed that the amount of pesticides applied for filbert aphid control has declined by 93%. The registration of synthetic pyrethroids for filbertworm control and the use of pheromone trapping have reduced the amount of active ingredient applied in the industry by 96%. The annual cost savings to Oregon hazelnut growers due to use of the OSU IPM program are estimated at $0.5 million. Current research focuses on the use of less toxic insecticides, such as insect growth regulators for filbertworm and leafroller control. The most serious hazelnut disease, eastern filbert blight (EFB) caused by the fungus Anisogramma anomala was first reported in the Pacific northwestern U.S. in 1973. It has spread its way through two thirds of the hazelnut acreage. Current OSU IPM recommendations include preventative fungicide sprays in spring, scouting for and cutting out infections, and replacement of the most susceptible cultivars when possible. The long-term approach to EFB control is the development of EFB immune varieties.
Juan A. Villanueva-Jiménez and Marjorie A. Hoy
Florida citrus nursery growers were surveyed to learn about their citrus leafminer (Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton) (CLM) management practices as a preliminary step in developing an integrated pest management (IPM) program. All responses were kept anonymous. Survey responses from growers producing ≈4.2 million trees annually were obtained, which represents most of the estimated 5.2 million trees required to annually replant Florida groves. Large nurseries (20%) each produced ≥100,000 trees per year and jointly provided 88% of the trees produced annually. Small nurseries (80%) each produced <100,000 trees per year. The citrus leafminer was ranked the most important pest in nurseries during 1995. Pesticides used for CLM control included avermectin, azadirachtin, imidacloprid, fenoxycarb, diflubenzuron, and sulfur, in order of importance. Oil and soap also were used. Growers were concerned about the possibility that the CLM will develop resistance to pesticides. Producers potentially were willing to monitor CLM populations, switch pesticide types to improve survival of parasitoids of the CLM, and leave untreated trees inside the nursery to serve as refuges for CLM parasitoids. In order of importance, pest management advice was provided by private chemical companies, the Florida Citrus Pest Management Guide produced by the University of Florida/Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (UF/IFAS), UF/IFAS personnel, grower magazines, private consultants, the Florida Citrus Nurserymen's Association, and other growers.
Jeanne Briggs, Ted Whitwell, R. Thomas Fernandez, and Melissa B. Riley
Field research was conducted at a container nursery to investigate fungicide movement in runoff water. Fungicides were applied as either a preventative treatment to all container plants, or as a component of an integrated pest management (IPM) program in which fungicides were only applied to plants showing signs of pathogen infestation. Thiophanate-methyl and chlorothalonil were applied in July and August 1998, and metalaxyl was applied in September 1998. Runoff water was sampled on the day after application (first irrigation after pesticide application) through three pulse irrigation cycles. Total amounts of thiophanate-methyl and chlorothalonil in runoff water were 7% and 4%, respectively, of applied amount in July. In August, 2% and 4% of thiophanate-methyl and chlorothalonil were found from the preventative treatment. Of the applied metalaxyl, 25% was detected in runoff water for the first irrigation event after application from the preventative treatment. Metalaxyl is a highly water soluble pesticide and nontarget losses from the granular application contributed to the large amounts detected. Total amounts of thiophanate-methyl, chlorothalonil and metalaxyl detected in runoff from the IPM treatment were 25% of amounts from the preventative treatment. No treatment differences were found in container plant salability or in the number of culls at the end of the study.
James W. Rushing, Wilton P. Cook, and Larry Spell
Water analyses from six commercial tomato packinghouse dump tanks in South Carolina revealed that metal and pesticide residues accumulate in the dump-tank water during daily operation. The amount that accumulated varied widely as follows: Asana (esfenvalerate), 0.3 to 13.8 ppb; Bravo (chlorothalonil), 0.1 to 2.7 ppm; copper, 2.0 to 7.3 ppm; and manganese, 0.1 to 2.5 ppm. Contamination appeared to be lowest when growers implemented integrated pest management (IPM) during production. In a subsequent controlled study, tomatoes were produced under the following pest-management practices: IPM protocol with pesticide applications based on scouting reports, modified IPM with one arbitrary pesticide application at bloom, and weekly pesticide application regardless of pest pressure. In a small-scale dump tank simulating commercial packinghouse operation, the water used for tomatoes that were produced with a weekly spray schedule had about 2 to 10 times the amount of pesticide and metal residues found in the water used for tomatoes grown under IPM protocol. Modified IPM protocol resulted in intermediate levels of residues. These results confirm that IPM field practices can reduce residues in tomato packinghouse wastewater.
Larry G. Olsen
Stephen S. Miller and Mark W. Brown
Robert F. Norris
Growing a single crop species (monoculture) has dominated agricultural systems in the United States in the last 50 to 75 years. Monoculture has been favored primarily because of mechanization with concomitant reductions in production costs. Some pest management specialists have thought that monoculture of crops may lead to increased insect, nematode, and disease problems. Weed management is probably more easily accomplished in large fields with monocultured crops than in small-scale farming employing polycropping techniques.
Michael A. Schnelle and Sharon L. von Broembsen
A pilot IPM program has been implemented for the commercial greenhouse industry in Oklahoma. Key growers and cooperative extension agents have formed working IPM teams across the state. After administering a pretest to establish an educational baseline, IPM workshops have been presented to growers and agents. By use of these specialist-mediated workshops key growers have received sufficient training to implement a multi-phase IPM program. Establishment of proper cultural and management practices has occurred within the first six months of training. As a result, advanced growers are now implementing basic IPM practices and are anticipating the use of biological controls within this year. Due to the success of the pilot program, workshops will be offered statewide next year. Extension IPM bulletins are being written to facilitate the comprehensive effort. This pilot program should serve as a model and impetus for extension specialists and greenhouse grower organizations in other states to incorporate IPM strategies in their production and management practices.