Hibiscus spp. seed were germinated and placed under different photoperiod treatments at 15, 20, or 25± 2°C. Photoperiod treatments were 9 hr, ambient daylight (≈9 hr) plus night interruption lighting (2200–0200 hr, 2 μmol·m–2·s–1 from incandescent lamps), or ambient daylight plus continuous light (100 μmol·m–2·s–1 light from high-pressure sodium lamps). Treatments were terminated at anthesis or after 20 weeks. Variation in flowering form and plant habit were documented and will be discussed. Temperature/photoperiod effects/interactions on plant development will be presented. Species were classified into appropriate photoperiodic groups. Those species with potential as new commercial floriculture crops will be presented.
R. Warner and J.E. Erwin
J.E. Erwin, R. Warner, G.T. Smith, and R. Wagner
Petunia × hybrida Vilm. cvs. `Purple Wave', `Celebrity Burgundy', `Fantasy Pink Morn', and `Dreams Red' were treated with temperature and photoperiod treatments for different lengths of time at different stages of development during the first 6 weeks after germination. Plants were grown with ambient light (≈8–9 hr) at 16°C before and after treatments. Flowering was earliest and leaf number below the first flower was lowest when plants were grown under daylight plus 100 μmol·m–2·s–1 continuous light (high-pressure sodium lamps). Flowering did not occur when plants were grown under short-day treatment (8-hr daylight). Plants grown with night interruption lighting from 2200–0200 HR (2 μmol·m–2·s–1 from incandescent lamps) flowered earlier, and with a reduced leaf number compared to plants grown with daylight + a 3-hr day extension from 1700–2000 HR (100 μmol·m–2·s–1 using high-pressure sodium lamps). Plant height and internode elongation were greatest and least in night interruption and continuous light treatments, respectively. `Fantasy Pink Morn' and `Purple Wave' were the earliest and latest cultivars to flower, respectively. Flowering was hastened as temperature increased from 12 to 20°C, but not as temperature was further increased from 20 to 24°C. Branching increased as temperature decreased from 24 to 12°C. Implications of data with respect to classification of petunia flower induction and pre-fi nishing seedlings are discussed.
R. Warner, J.E. Erwin, and R. Wagner
Gomphrena globosa L. `Gnome Pink' and Salvia farinacea Benth. `Victoria Blue' were grown under different photoperiod treatments with day and night temperatures ranging from 15 to 30°C ± 1°C air temperature for 14 weeks after germination or until anthesis. Days to anthesis and leaf number were lowest when plants were grown under 9 hr of daylight and daylight plus 4-hr day extension from 1700–2100 HR (100 μmol·m–2·s–1 from high-pressure sodium lamps) for Gomphrena and Salvia, respectively. Days to anthesis decreased as temperature increased from 15 to 25°C with Gomphrena. Further increasing night temperature from 25 to 30°C delayed flowering and increased leaf number below the first flower of Gomphrena, but hastened flowering of Salvia. Plant height and internode elongation were greatest and least in the night interruption (2 μmol·m–2·s–1 from incandescent lamps from 2200–0200 HR) and continuous light (daylight plus 100 μmol·m–2·s–1 from high-pressure sodium lamps) treatments, respectively. Implications of these data with respect to classification of Gomphrena and Salvia flower induction are discussed and revised production schedules are presented.
Linda Gaudreau, Josée Charbonneau, Louis-P. Vézina, and André Gosselin
Two cultivars (Karlo and Rosanna) of greenhouse lettuce were grown under different photosynthetic photon fluxes (PPF) and photoperiods provided by 400-W high–pressure sodium lamps. Natural light was compared to suppletmental lighting treatments providing either 50 or 100 μmol m-2-s-1 for photoperiods of 16, 20 or 24 h. Lettuce plants were grown in hydroponic gulleys using a standard nutrient solution. Plant fresh weights were measured every week for the duration of each culture grown between August 1989 and June 1990. The incidence of tipburn and the overall quality of the shoots were determined at the end of each crop. Leaf nitrate contents and nitrate reductase activity were measured for various lighting treatments. The highest fresh weight was obtained for the highest PPF and the longest photoperiod. However, these treatments were associated with a higher incidence of tipburn. Supplemental lighting reduced the leaf nitrate contents and affected the nitrate reductase activity.
Jack W. Buxton and John N. Walker
Natural-light growth chambers constructed within a greenhouse compartment were equipped with a ventilation/circulation system, two stages of heating, and evaporative cooling. Air drawn from the greenhouse compartment continuously ventilated the chambers; the air was heated or cooled to the set-point temperature. A computer-controlled environmental system maintained uniform temperatures within the chambers and maintained the temperature within ±1C of the set point at night and during periods of low solar radiation; during higher solar radiation periods, control was not as precise. Carbon dioxide concentration was accurately maintained, and the photosynthetic photon flux from supplemental high-pressure sodium lamps was ≈200 μmol·m-2·s-1. The natural-light growth chambers provide a means for studying the interactive effects of temperature, light, and other environmental variables in experiments to increase production efficiency.
A. Cutlan, J.E. Erwin, H. Huntington, and J. Huntington
Lamium maculatum L. `White Nancy', Scaevola aemula R. `New Blue Wonder', Verbena × hybrida Groenl. & Ruempl. `Tapian Blue', and Calibracoa × hybrida `Cherry Pink' were placed under different photoperiod treatments at constant 15, 20, 25, or 30 ± 2°C air temperature. Photoperiod treatments were 9 hr, ambient daylight (≈8 hr) plus night interruption lighting (2200–0200 hr, 2 μmol·m–2·s–1 from incandescent lamps), or ambient daylight plus continuous light (100 μmol·m–2·s–1 light from high-pressure sodium lamps). Data on plant development and rootability of cuttings from each environment was collected. Days to anthesis was lowest when plants were grown under the continuous lighting treatment across species. Verbena and Calibracoa stem elongation was greatest when grown under 30°C under continuous lighting. Species were classified as to photoperiodic flower induction groups. Implications of these data with respect to propagating and finishing these crops are discussed.
G. Nordwig and J.E. Erwin
Asclepias sp. seed were germinated and placed under different photoperiod treatments at constant 15, 20, or 25 ± 2°C. Photoperiod treatments were 8 hr, 8 hr plus night interruption lighting (2200–0200 hr, 2 μmol·m–2·s–1 from incandescent lamps), day extension lighting 1700–2000 HR (100 μmol·m–2·s–1 from highpressure sodium lamps), or daylight plus continuous light (100 μmol·m–2·s–1 light from high-pressure sodium lamps) treatments. Treatments were terminated at anthesis or after 15 weeks. Variation in plant habit and flowering were documented. Also, temperature/photoperiod effects/interactions on plant development are discussed. Lastly, species were classified into appropriate photoperiodic groups and evaluated for potential use as new floriculture crops.
David L. Bubenheim
The role of spectral quality and CO2 concentration in environmental control of lignin synthesis in spring wheat is being studied by the NASA Controlled Ecological Life Support System Program (CELSS). Wheat cultivars were exposed to four different spectral environments provided by 1) metal halide lamps (MH), 2) high pressure sodium lamps (HPS), 3) low pressure sodium lamps (LPS; almost monochromatic, 589 nm), or 4) LPS plus low irradiance blue light (5 μmol m-2 s-1; LPS + Blue) at equal photosynthetic photon flux. Stem lignin content was suppressed 25% under the LPS compared with the MH and HPS; blue addition (LPS + Blue) resulted in 25% greater lignin content compared with the LPS alone and 8% suppression compared with MH and HPS. CO2 studies compared lignin content of wheat grown in the field, greenhouse at 350 μmol mol-1 CO2, and growth chambers at 350 and 700 μmol mol-1 CO2, Lignin content was greatest and equal in the field and growth chamber at 700 μmol mol-1 CO2. Lowest lignin content was measured in the growth chamber at 350 μmol mol-1 CO2; lignin content in the greenhouse was intermediate between that measured in the field and growth chamber at 350 μmol mol-1 CO2, Additional CO2 studies in controlled environments will be discussed.
Michael D. Berg and Preston K. Andrews
An aeroponic growth chamber is a system for growing plants in air with water and nutrients supplied by intermittent mist. This type of plant growth system is especially useful for experiments where root accessibility is desired. Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum L. `Bonnie Best') were used to test the performance of an aeroponic growth chamber. A nutrient solution mist was applied through spray nozzles suspended below roots of supported seedlings. Mist application was regulated by electric timers, so that mist was applied for 50 sec. every 5 min. during the 16-hr light period, which was supplemented with a high-pressure sodium lamp. Root and stem lengths, leaf number and leaf lengths were measured weekly. Plastochron index (PI) was used to measure rate of leaf initiation. PI increased linearly, indicating uniform initiation of leaf primordia and absence of environmental stresses. Stem and root lengths increased consistently throughout the growing period. Each plant was harvested, separated into leaves, shoots and roots, oven dried, and dry weights measured.
Mark P. Kaczperski and Royal D. Heins
Plug-grown Pelargonium × hortorum `Pinto Red' seedlings were grown under natural daylight (average of 4.7 mol/day) or with supplemental irradiance from high-pressure sodium lamps. Seedlings were grown under 8-, 16-, or 24-h photoperiods with supplemental irradiances of 2.5, 3.75, or 5.0 mol/day at each photoperiod. Supplemental irradiance was provided for 7, 14, 21, and 28 days beginning 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days after sowing. Seedlings were transplanted 63 days after sowing to 8-cm containers (121 plants/m2) and grown to flower. Leaf number at time of transplant was not affected by photoperiod, but increased as daily irradiance and weeks of supplemental irradiance increased. Seedlings were more responsive to supplemental irradiance applications beginning 28 and 35 days than at 7 to 21 days after sowing. Ninety-two percent of seedlings receiving 28 days of 5.0 mol/day supplemental irradiance under a 24-h photoperiod starting 35 days after sowing had initiated flower buds at time of transplant; 75% of those receiving 3.75 mol/day were initiated. Plants receiving less than 3 weeks of supplemental irradiance or with an irradiance period beginning less than 28 days after sowing had not initiated flowers at transplant.