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R. Thomas Fernandez, Ted Whitwell, Melissa B. Riley, and Cassandra R. Bernard

Canna ×generalis L.H. Bail. (canna), Pontaderia cordata L. (pickerel weed), and Iris L. × `Charjoys Jan' (`Charjoys Jan' iris) were exposed to a 5 mg·L-1 suspension of isoxaben or oryzalin or a water control for 9 days. Growth and photosynthetic responses were monitored throughout treatment and for an additional 22 d after termination of treatment. By the end of the experiment plant height of pickerel weed was reduced by oryzalin. Isoxaben resulted in lower height and reduced leaf emergence for all three taxa by the end of the experiment. Leaf CO2 assimilation (A) and transpiration (E) were lower for oryzalin-treated canna only 17 and 18 days after treatment, several days after treatment had been terminated. Leaf A and E were lower for oryzalin-treated pickerel weed and `Charjoys Jan' iris for most days after day 17. Isoxaben reduced A and E of all three plants for all days measured except day 6 for `Charjoys Jan' iris. Lower photosystem II efficiency (Fv/Fm) was found for isoxaben-treated canna from day 5 onward and days 7, 20, and 23 for pickerel weed and `Charjoys Jan' iris. Rapid reduction in A and Fv/Fm for all plants treated with isoxaben indicates a direct effect of isoxaben on photosynthesis. Reductions in growth and photosynthetic parameters due to oryzalin were minimal for all plants indicating these plants would be useful in phytoremediation systems where oryzalin is present. However, growth and photosynthetic parameters were reduced substantially for all plants exposed to isoxaben indicating the taxa studied would not perform well in phytoremediation systems with this level of isoxaben exposure. Chemical names used: isoxaben (N-[3-(1-ethyl-1-methylpropyl)-5-isoxazolyly]-2,6-dimethoxybenzamide); oryzalin (4-(dipropylamino)-3,5-dinitrobenzenesulforamide).

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Christian M. Baldwin, A. Douglas Brede, and Jami J. Mayer

With the emergence of glyphosate-tolerant cultivars, identifying management strategies not applicable with older cultivars need to be revisited. Objectives of these research trials were to quantify the growth regulation effects following a glyphosate application and to determine the safety of tank mixing glyphosate with another herbicide, various nitrogen (N) sources, and a plant growth regulator (PGR) on a glyphosate-tolerant perennial ryegrass [PRG (Lolium perenne L.)] cultivar, Replay. In the growth regulation trial, glyphosate was applied at 0 to 1.03 lb/acre, whereas PGRs flurpimidol, trinexapac-ethyl, paclobutrazol, and trinexapac-ethyl + flurpimidol were applied at 0.50, 0.18, 0.37, and 0.09 + 0.22 lb/acre, respectively, on 15 July 2010 and 2 Aug. 2012. In the tank mixing trial, dicamba (0.50 lb/acre), urea (15 lb/acre N), and ammonium sulfate [AMS (15 lb/acre N)] were applied alone or tank mixed with glyphosate at 0 to 0.52 lb/acre. Tank mixing urea with glyphosate had minimal effect on PRG color, while adding AMS consistently improved color at the highest glyphosate rate of 0.52 lb/acre. Twenty days following a glyphosate application, only rates >0.40 lb/acre resulted in significant growth regulation compared with untreated plots. This study indicates that tank mixing glyphosate with another herbicide, a PGR, and various N sources appear safe to the glyphosate-tolerant PRG cultivar. Also, the growth regulating effects of glyphosate applications would serve as an additional benefit to annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.) control reported in previous trials.

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Gary L. McDaniel, William E. Klingeman, Willard T. Witte, and Phillip C. Flanagan

One-half (18 g·ha-1 a.i.) and three-fourths (27 g·ha-1 a.i.) rates of halosulfuron (Manage®, MON 12051) were combined with adjuvants and evaluated for effectiveness in controlling purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.) and for phytotoxic responses exhibited by two kinds of container-grown ornamental plants. Adjuvants included X-77®, Scoil®, Sun-It II®, Action “99”®, and Agri-Dex®. By 8 weeks after treatment (WAT), halosulfuron combined with X-77®, Agri-Dex®, or Action “99”® at the lower halosulfuron rate provided <90% purple nutsedge suppression. In contrast, Sun-It II® provided 100% control when combined with the higher halosulfuron rate. Nutsedge control persisted into the following growing season and halosulfuron combined with either Scoil® or Sun-It II® provided >97% suppression of nutsedge tuber production. Growth of liriope [Liriope muscari (Decne.) Bailey `Big Blue'] was not inhibited by Scoil® or Sun-It II® adjuvants in combination with the low rate of halosulfuron. However, regardless of the rate of halosulfuron or adjuvant used, initial foliar chlorosis was observed in both daylily (Hemerocallis sp. L. `Stella d'Oro') and liriope. All liriope receiving halosulfuron with X-77®, Scoil®, or Sun-It II® adjuvants recovered normal foliage by 8 WAT. By contrast, at 8 WAT some daylily still maintained a degree of foliar discoloration. In addition to chlorosis, all treatments reduced flower number in daylilies. The number of flower scapes produced by liriope was not affected by halosulfuron when in combination with either Sun-It II® or Scoil®. The high rate of halosulfuron combined with X-77® or Action “99”® improved control of purple nutsedge. However, this rate inhibited growth of both species, daylily flower numbers, and scape numbers of liriope, regardless of adjuvant. Chemical names used: halosulfuron (Manage®, MON 12051, methyl 5-{[(4,6-dimethyl-2-pyrimidinyl) amino] carbonyl-aminosulfonyl}-3-chloro-1-methyl-1-H-pyrozole-4-carboxylate); proprietary blends of 100% methylated seed oil (Scoil® and Sun-It II®); proprietary blend of 99% polyalkyleneoxide modified heptamethyl trisiloxane and nonionic surfactants (Action “99”®); alkylarylpolyoxyethylene, alkylpolyoxyethelene, fatty acids, glycols, dimethylpolysiloxane, and isopropanol (X-77®); proprietary blend of 83% paraffin-based petroleum oil, with 17% polyoxyethylate polyol fatty acid ester and polyol fatty ester as nonionic surfactants (Agri-Dex®)

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Jerald K. Pataky, Jonathan N. Nordby, Martin M. Williams II, and Dean E. Riechers

Some sweet corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids and inbreds can be severely injured by applications of postemergence herbicides. An association was observed between the responses of sweet corn hybrids and inbreds to nicosulfuron and mesotrione, and F2 families derived from a cross of a sensitive (Cr1) and a tolerant (Cr2) sweet corn inbred segregated for response to these two herbicides. These observations prompted us to examine the inheritance of sensitivity in sweet corn to multiple postemergence herbicide treatments with different modes of action and to determine if there was a common genetic basis for cross-sensitivity to these herbicides. The sensitive and tolerant inbreds, progeny in the F1, F2, BC1, and BC2 generations, and BC1S1, BC2S1, F2:3 (S1:2) and F3:4 (S2:3) families were screened for responses to eight herbicide treatments. Based on segregation of tolerant and sensitive progeny and segregation of family responses, our data indicate that a single recessive gene in Cr1 conditioned sensitivity to four acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides (foramsulfuron, nicosulfuron, primisulfuron, and rimsulfuron), a 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD)-inhibiting herbicide (mesotrione), a growth regulator herbicide combination (dicamba + diflufenzopyr), and a protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO)-inhibiting herbicide (carfentrazone). Based on highly significant positive correlations of phenotypic responses among BC1S1, BC2S1, F2:3, and F3:4 families, the same gene (or closely linked genes) appeared to condition responses to each of these herbicide treatments. The dominant allele also conditions tolerance to bentazon [a photosystem II (PSII)-inhibiting herbicide] although another gene(s) also appeared to affect bentazon tolerance.

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M.J. Haar, S.A. Fennimore, M.E. McGiffen, W.T. Lanini, and C.E. Bell

In an effort to identify new herbicides for vegetables crops, broccoli (Brassica oleracea) cantaloupe (Cucumis melo), carrot (Daucus carota), head lettuce (Lactuca sativa), bulb onion (Allium cepa), spinach (Spinacia oleracea) and processing tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) were evaluated in the field for tolerance to eight herbicides. The following herbicides and rates, expressed in a.i. lb/acre, were applied preemergence: carfentrazone, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2; flufenacet, 0.525; flumioxazin, 0.063, 0.125 and 0.25; halosulfuron, 0.032 and 0.047; isoxaben, 0.25 and 0.50; rimsulfuron, 0.016 and 0.031; SAN 582, 0.94 and 1.20 and sulfentrazone, 0.15 and 0.25 (1.000 lb/acre = 1.1208 kg·ha-1). Tolerance was evaluated by measuring crop stand, injury and biomass. Several leads for new vegetable herbicides were identified. Lettuce demonstrated tolerance to carfentrazone at 0.05 and 0.10 lb/acre. Cantaloupe and processing tomato were tolerant of halosulfuron at 0.032 and 0.047 lb/acre. Broccoli, cantaloupe and processing tomato were tolerant of SAN 582 at 0.94 lb/acre. Broccoli and carrot were tolerant of sulfentrazone at 0.15 lb/acre.

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Joanna Hubbard and Ted Whitwell

Twelve ornamental grasses from the genera Calamagrostis, Cortaderia, Eragrostis, Erianthus, Miscanthus, Sorghastrum, Spartina, Panicum, and Pennisetum were evaluated for tolerance to the postemergence herbicides fenoxaprop-ethyl, fluazifop-P, and sethoxydim at 0.4 kg a.i./ha. Calamagrostis was uninjured by fenoxaprop-ethyl as measured by visual injury ratings, height, and foliage dry weight. Greenhouse studies evaluated the tolerance of three Calamagrostis cultivars to fenoxaprop-ethyl rates of 0.4 to 3.2 kg a.i./ha with no observed visual injury from any treatment. However, the expansion rate of the youngest Calamagrostis leaf was reduced linearly with increasing herbicide rates each day after application. The highest rate (3.2 kg a.i./ha) reduced the leaf expansion rate by 1 day and all other rates by 3 days after treatment. Leaf expansion rate differed between Calamagrostis cultivars at different times after herbicide treatment. Dry weight of Calamagrostis arundinacea `Karl Foerster' was reduced at 4 weeks after treatment but not at 10 weeks after treatment. Chemical names used: (±)-ethyl 2-[4-[(6-chloro-2-benzoxazolyl)oxy)phenoxy]propanoate (fenoxaprop-ethyl); (R)-2-[4-[[5-trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridinyl]oxy]phenoxy]propanoic acid (fluazifop-P); 2[1-(ethoxy imino)butyl]-5[2-(ethylthio)propyl]-3-hydroxy-2-cyclohexen-1-one (sethoxydim).

Open access

John W. Kelly and Ted Whitwell

Abstract

Flowering herbaceous perennials are generally grown for several years in the same location in the landscape. Weed competition reduces the vigor, as well as adversely affecting the aesthetic value of the planting. Previous experiments on perennials indicate considerable variation exists for herbicide tolerance (Bing, 1983; Bing and Macksel, 1984; Gilreath, 1985, 1986, 1987).

Open access

H. J. Hopen

Abstract

Increasing herbicide selectivity between weeds and economic crops has facilitated row crop production with a decreasing demand for labor to be used for mechanical weed control. However, selectivity has been identified in several cases (1, 2, 3) to be of an intra-specific nature. Intra-specific selectivity by growth regulating compounds (i.e. herbicides) provides interesting academic concepts for more adequate physiological models (4, 5, 6) than inter-specific comparisons. The increased selectivity does creat problems in the use of herbicides in commercial production practices because several cultivars of a crop are usually available. Robinson (3) has suggested that with close selectivity and the rapid changing of cultivar utilization, inbred lines may be the most appropriate indicator plants to utilize in determining herbicide tolerances.

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Joanna Hubbard and Ted Whitwell

Ornamental grasses are popular landscape plants and often encounter turf encroachment or other grass weed problems. Several postemergence grass herbicides are available for use in turf and ornamentals and herbicide tolerance information is needed for ornamental grass species. Fifteen ornamental grasses including species from the genera Calamagrostis, Cortaderia, Eragrostis, Erianthus, Miscanthus, Sorghastrum, Spartina, Panicum and Pennisetum were field planted in Clemson, SC in May 1989 and Festuca species in November, 1989. Herbicide treatments were fenoxaprop-ethyl, fluazifop-P and sethoxydim at 0.4 kg a.i.·ha-1 applied 4 weeks after planting and an untreated control. Height and injury evaluations were taken at weekly intervals and plants were harvested 10 weeks after treatment. Fenoxaprop-ethyl treated Calamagrostis and Festuca species treated with all herbicides were the only treatments that were the same as untreated controls in terms of % injury, height and dry weight. Three ornamental Calamagrostis species were evaluated in a greenhouse study to determine the level of tolerance to fenoxaprop-ethyl at 0.4, 0.8, 1.6 and 3.2 kg a.i.·ha-1. No visual injury symptoms were seen on any treatments as compared to untreated controls but growth rates of the youngest leaves did vary among species shortly after treatment.