herbicides have also proven useful for control of wild garlic. Glyphosate either equaled or surpassed control achieved by 2,4-D in studies by Hardcastle (1976) and Troutman et al. (1981) . However, glyphosate applications are limited to warm-season species
Zachary D. Small, James D. McCurdy, Erick D. Begitschke, and Michael P. Richard
Harlene Hatterman-Valenti, Greg Endres, Brian Jenks, Michael Ostlie, Theresa Reinhardt, Andrew Robinson, John Stenger, and Richard Zollinger
Dicamba is commonly used as a postemergence herbicide in corn ( Zea mays ), small grains, and pastures. Recent advances have led to the development of dicamba-resistant soybean and cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum ) cultivars to combat glyphosate
C. H. Gilliam, D. J. Eakes, J. W. Olive, and M. Thetford
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate commonly used granular preemergence herbicides applied prior to the sticking of cuttings in propagation. Rooting percentage of the three cultivars, `Trouper' azalea, `Hino-Crimson' azalea, and `August Beauty' gardenia, was not affected in experiment 1. However, all three species exhibited some reduction in root quality or root length with all herbicides. In general, the herbicides with the least suppression were: Ronstar, Southern WeedGrass Control, OH-2, Snapshot 2.5 TG, and Rout. The second experiment with `August Beauty' gardenia evaluated the effect of cuttings depth in overcoming the negative herbicide effects on root development. The results were similar to those obtained in experiment 1.
Jayesh B. Samtani, J. Ben Weber, and Steven A. Fennimore
esculentus L.) ( Daugovish et al., 2009 ). Hand weeding the fields increases production costs and has little effect on weeds such as nutsedge. Herbicides can help keep the weed populations down while maintaining the profitability of strawberry production
Cover crops, cultivation, flaming, soil solarization, and mulching are commonly used for weed control in organic production systems. However, several new herbicides, approved by the Organic Materials Review Institute (OMRI), are recommended as contact, non-selective, post-emergence herbicides for annual grasses and broadleaf weeds. Citric acid (Alldown), clove oil (Matran 2), thyme/clove oil (XPRESS) were compared with glyphosate (Roundup Pro), a systemic broad spectrum herbicide, at three sites in southern and north central Florida during September and October, 2003. Treatments varied at each site but included glyphosate (5% a.i. applied to runoff) organic herbicides at recommended rates (undiluted citrus acid at 61 L·ha-1; 10% clove oil at 76 L·ha-1; 10% clove oil/thyme oil at 76 L·ha-1) and at twice recommended concentrations and application rates. Grasses and broadleaf weed species were different at each site but included Alexander grass, bahia grass, Bermudagrass, carpetweed, crabgrass, hairy indigo, lambs quarters, Florida pusley, goatweed, nutsedge, pigweed, shrubby primrose willow, broadleaf signalgrass, southern sandbur, spurge, torpedograss, and citrus rootstock seedlings. Weed control with the organic herbicides at all three sites at recommended and at higher concentrations and rates was inconsistent, ranging from 10% to 40%, compared with 100% control with glyphosate. Labels for the organic herbicides generally specify application to actively growing weeds less than 10 cm tall, emphasizing their use as early season herbicides. Fall applications to larger weeds, some within the specified maturity and size range and others taller and producing seed, could partially explain poor weed control.
Matthew T. Elmore, James A. Murphy, and Bradley S. Park
is usually considered a weed in turfgrass maintained at 2 cm or higher, because it becomes puffy and unattractive ( Branham et al., 2005 ). Nonselective herbicides such as glyphosate can be used for CBG control, but a single application does not
Amber N. Bates, Gerald M. Henry, and Cynthia B. McKenney
phytotoxicity concerns associated with many postemergence herbicides make preemergence herbicide applications even more important. Few research trials have focused on the phytotoxic effect of preemergence herbicides on evening primrose species. Richardson and
Sanjeev K. Bangarwa, Jason K. Norsworthy, and Edward E. Gbur
control options in pepper include pre-emergence (PRE) and post-emergence (POST) herbicides. Registered PRE residual herbicides for in-row weed control include bensulide, trifluralin, clomazone, napropamide, and oxyfluorfen ( Smith and Daugovish, 2008
R. A. Straw and C. A. Mullins
`Merit' and `Silver Queen' sweet corn plants were treated with nicosulfuron and primisulfuron herbicides at rates of 0.035 and 0.039 kg ai ha-1, respectively. These herbicides were applied either over the top postemergence or directed post emergence. Over the top postemergence applications killed all of the `Merit' plants, but did not injure `Silver Queen' plants. All treatments provided greater than 90 % control of johnson grass and fall panicum.
In a separate experiment, `Silver Queen', `Incredible', `How Sweet It Is', `Pinnacle', `Sweetie 76', and `Landmark' showed slight injury, while `Silverado' showed moderate injury 2 weeks after application of a postemergence treatment of either nicosulfuron or primisulfuron. However, the plants soon outgrew this injury and yields were not reduced due to herbicide treatments.
Joseph Thomas and Matthew Taylor
-specific herbicides. Catanzaro et al. (1993) indicated that fountain grass exhibited severe (>74%) phytotoxicity 69 d after treatment (DAT) with fenoxaprop, fluazifop, quizalofop, or sethoxydim at 1× and 2× the commercial formulation rates. Fluazifop caused the